Imatges de pàgina
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74. Ordima/s. Prathama, “ first "; dipiti/a, “ Second '; tritāya, “ third "; are declined as pronominals (see r. 87.), Chaturtha, “ fourth " (of r6roprog); panchama, “ fifth "; shas///a (षष्ट), “ sixth "; saptama, " seventh "; ashtama, “ eighth "; nagama, * ninth '; dashama, “ tenth "; like nouns of the first class (nom. -al, - -am). The ordinals from “ eleventh " to “ twentieth,' are formed from the cardinals, by rejecting the final m; thus, ekādasha (nom. -dh, -2, -am), “ Twentieth" is formed, either by adding the superlative affix 'Vama to the cardinal, as pinshatitama ; Or by rojecting the final, and leawing cinsha (nom. -al, -, -am). So also trinshattama or ८rāns/ia, “ thirtieth.' Similarly “ fortieth ' and “ fiftieth.' The other decimal cardinals form the ordinals either by adding tama, or by changing ti to ta ; as, saptatitamd or saptata, " Seventieth.'

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OHAPTER W.

PRONOUNS.
FORMATION OF THE CRUDE.

PRONOUNS have no crude state analogous to that of nouns, that is, no state distinct from all inflexion, serving as the basis on which all the cases are constructed.

The guestion then arises, what form of the pronoun is used in the formation of compound words. In the pronouns of the first and Second persons, the ablative cases, Singular and plural, and in the other pronouns, the nominative and accusative cases neuter, are considered as expressive of the most general and comprehensive state of the pronoun. These cases, therefore, discharge the office of a crude, and are constantly found at the commencement of compound words.

IDECLENSION OR THE PERISONAL PRONOUNS.

75. मत् mat, “ I," is taken for the crude of the sing. ; and अस्मत्। asmat, “ we," for the crude of the plur. of the first personal pronoun.

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77. तत् tat or तद् tad, “ he," is taken as the crude of the sing. and plur. of the third personal pronoun.

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With this pronoun cf.

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78. The obligue cases of स्रात्मन् , “ soul," “ self " (declined p. 4I.), are used reflexively in place of the three personal pronouns, like the Latin ipse.

REFLExIWE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

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DEMONSTRATIWE PRONOUNS IDEOLINED.

79. The third personal pronoun तत् tat, “ he," declined above, is constantly used in a demonstrative sense, to signify “ that T or “ this'; and by prefixing e to it, another common pronoun is

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* The acc. m. may be खटनं , the acc. f. ट्नां. f This pronoun affords the only example of the old form for the instr. plur. of

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maSculine

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8l. As the relative is formed by substituting y, so the interrogative by substituting % for s and t, in the pronoun tad. Thus, nom. m. क: /6ah, “ who ?" कौ kau, के ke. In the nom. neut., however, the interrogative is किं kim and not kad.* Him is also the orude, and occurs in a few oompounds ; as, किमर्थं, “ on what account ?'

POSSESSIWE PRONOUNS.

82. These are formed by adding the affix छू/a (r. 38. xI.) to the Crude of the personal pronouns; as, madāya, “ mine " (nom. -ah, -ā, -am); tioadiya, “ thine "; asmadiya, “our." Observe, however, that the gen. case of the personal pronouns is more usually taken to express the possessive ; as, तस्य पुच:, “ his son."

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masculine nouns of the first class. This form is still preserved in the Wedas, and in accordance with this, the instr. plur. of deca (r. 48.) would be depebhih.

*. Kad, however, was the old form, and is retaimed in a few words ; Such as hachchit, “ perhaps”; kadartha, “ useless” (* of what use?'') ; hadadhulam, “ a bad road” (* what a r0ad !'').

f But the abl. and loc. sing. m., and nom. pl. m. may follow deod, r. 48.

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