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N. tuam, “thou," yai yuvām, “ you two," o yüyam," you."
94 yushmān.* I. POT twayā,
युवाभ्यां yuvābhyām, युष्माभि: yushmābhih. D. que tubhyam,*
y pi yushmabhyam.* Ab. Ma twat,
युष्मत yushmat. . G. Ta tava,* yout: yuvayoh,*
retai yushmākam.* L. त्वयि twayi,
युष्मासु yushmasu. 77. ma tat or a tad, “he,” is taken as the crude of the sing. and plur. of the third personal pronoun. With this pronoun cf. the Greek article.
N. HT sā, “she, ते te,
arfir: tābhih. D. तस्यै tasyai,
itu: tābhyah. Ab. ORT: tasyāh,
tābhyah. G. tasyāh, aut: tayoh,
ATAT tāsā L. Teri tasyām,
tayoh, Neuter, nom. acc. na tat, ñ te, mfa tāni; the rest like the masculine.
This pronoun is sometimes used emphatically with the other pronouns, like ille and ipse. Thus, FI, “ille ego"; Ħa, “illi nos"; a RI, “ille tu"; À qet, “illi vos "; # TH:, “ille ipse "; ac ean,
तासु tāsu. .
* The acc. sing. may also be pat; the dat. gen. À; the acc., dat., gen. dual ai; the acc., dat., gen. plur. a: (cf. Lat. vos).
REFLEXIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
78. The oblique cases of what, “soul," "self" (declined p. 41.), are used reflexively in place of the three personal pronouns, like the Latin ipse. Thus, ātmānam (me ipsum) anāhārena hanishyāmi, “I will kill myself by fasting "; ātmānam (te ipsum) mritavad darshaya, "show thyself as if dead "; ātmānam (se ipsum) nindati, 'he blames himself."
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS DECLINED.
79. The third personal pronoun na tat, “he,” declined above, is constantly used in a demonstrative sense, to signify “that " " this "; and by prefixing e to it, another common pronoun is formed still more strongly demonstrative; as, nom. V: eşhah (r. 30.), ent etau, pa ete"; acc. Pri etam, &c.; ins. paa etena, &c.
There is another very common demonstrative pronoun, of which idam, “this,” the nom. case neuter, is considered to be the crude, but is never used as such.
N. इयं iyam,
ābhyām, Grut: anayoh,
imāh. utfit: ābhih. Waz: ābhyah.
ābhyah. आसां āsām.
* The acc. m. may be pai, the acc. f. PGI. † This pronoun affords the only example of the old form for the instr. plur. of
Neut., nom. acc. e idam, za ime, saifa imāni; the rest like the masculine.
There is another demonstrative pronoun rarely used except in the nom., of which adas is taken as the crude : nom. m. asau, “this” or “he,” amī, amī; acc. amum ; ins. amunā, &c.
RELATIVE PRONOUN—“who," " which." 80. The relative may be formed by simply substituting y for & and t, in the pronoun tad. Thus, crude form yad : nom. m. T: yah, “who," at
ये ye; acc. i yam, whom,” &c.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN—" who?" " what?” 81. As the relative is formed by substituting y, so the interrogative by substituting k for 8 and t, in the pronoun tad. Thus, nom. m. afii kah, “who ?” mht kau, a ke. In the nom. neut., however, the interrogative is fai kim and not kad. Kim is also the crude, and occurs in a few compounds; as, foto, “on what account?”
82. These are formed by adding the affix īya (r. 38. xi.) to the crude of the personal pronouns; as, madīya, “mine” (nom. -ah, -ā, -am); twadīya, “thine "; asmadiya, “our." Observe, however, that the gen. case of the personal pronouns is more usually taken to express the possessive; as, iren ga:, “his son."
REFLEXIVE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
83. #swa (cf. suus), declined like sarva, r. 87. (nom. #i, art,
:æt), is used reflexively, in reference to all three persons, and may stand for "my own," “thy own,"
our own,” &c. It often occupies the first place in a compound; thus, a refa,
• his own,
masculine nouns of the first class. This form is still preserved in the Vedas, and in accordance with this, the instr. plur. of deva (r. 48.) would be devebhih.
*. Kad, however, was the old form, and is retained in a few words; such as kachchit, “perhaps”; kadartha, “ useless” (“ of what use ?”); kadadhwan, “ road” (“what a road !”).
† But the abl. and loc. sing. m., and nom. pl. m. may follow deva, r. 48.
“ he goes to his own house.' The gen. case of ātman (p. 41.), or often the crude, is used with the same signification ; as, WIT TË or प्रात्मगृहं गच्छति.
84. Van bhavat, “your honour,” requiring the 3d person of the verb, is declined like dhanavat (r. 61.). Thus, nom. bhavān, bhavantau, bhavantah. It is used respectfully in place of the second personal pronoun; as, bhavān dharmam karotu, “let your honour practise virtue."
85. The indeclinable affixes chit, api, and chana, added to the several cases of the interrogative pronoun, give them an indefinite signification. Thus, nom. sing. masc. afur kashchit, "somebody,"
any body "; acc. afer kañchit; ins. kenachit; dat. kasmaichit ; loc. afvifaa kasminshchit (r. 20.); nom. plur. masc. kechit.
. So also nom. misfa ko'pi, kashchana, “somebody"; ins. kenāpi, &c. By prefixing 7, is formed the negative at afun, "nobody."
† In the same way interrogative adverbs are made indefinite. Thus, from kati, “ how many ?” katichit, “a few"; from kadā, “when ?" kadāchit, “ at some time"; from katham, “how?" kathanchana, “some how."
86. This is expressed by prefixing the relative pronoun to the interrogative. Thus, w: afun, “whosoever "; un fafen, “what
Or by repeating the relative; as, यो यः, यद् यद्.
87. There are certain common adjectives which partake of the nature of pronouns, and follow the declension of tad (r. 77.). Thus,
* In modern Sanscrit nija often takes the place of swa ; as, faste tesfer.
† Prof. Lassen cites a remarkable example from the Rāmāyana, in which 7 refers to the dual number. Putram ātmanah sprightwā nipetatuh, “ they two fell down after touching their son.” Anthol. p. 171.
pret sarva, "all": nom. masc. sarvah, sarvau, sarve; dat. sarvasmai ; nom. fem. sarvā, &c.; dat. sarvasyai, &c. But the nom. neut. is sarvam, &c., not sarvad.
The following are the most useful of these pronominals. Eka,"one"; prathama, “first "; dwitiya, “ second"; tritiya, "third "; alpa, “few"; ubha,“ both"; anya,
other"; itara, “other"; katara, “which of the two?" (the three last also follow tad in the nom. and acc. neut. anyat, itarat, katarat). But some of these are optionally declined like nouns of the first class ; thus, alpa, nom. plur. alpāh or alpe.
General Observations. ALTHOUGH the Sanscrit verb will be found somewhat intricate by one who follows it through all its windings, yet such a general view of its structure as will be sufficient to answer the practical wants of the general reader may be easily given, and as easily apprehended. There is no part of the grammar so capable as this of plain exoteric explanation, whilst there is none so obscured by the esoteric and mystical teaching of native grammarians ; none, of which the general principles are so few and so close to the surface, whilst the abstruser truths, the niceties and refinements, are multiplied to an extent that tends to discourage, or even disgust the uninitiated learner. Hence it happens that the expounder of Sanscrit Grammar, who wishes to exhaust his subject, is here not only compelled to embarass and perplex an otherwise simple statement, by the diffuse exhibition of various forms, and tenses, and exceptions, which are of little utility to the ordinary student, but is forced, moreover, to bewilder the beginner by a