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The declension of substantives involves that of adjectives; and, as already seen, the three examples of substantives, given under each class, serve as the model for the three genders of adjectives falling under the same class. Adjectives, in their simplest form, not derived from substantives, are very rarely found in Sanscrit. Such as do occur belong chiefly to the first and third classes of nouns; as, priya, “dear" (nom. m. f. n. priyah, priyā, priyam,* r. 48. 49. 50.); sūdhu, “ good " (nom. m. f. n. sādhuh, sādhuh or sūdhwī, sādhu, r. 54. 55. 49. 56.).
Adjectives formed from substantives are very numerous, as may be seen by a reference to r. 38. 42. and 43. IV. They belong chiefly to the first, fifth, and sixth classes of nouns. The following examples may be added to those already given ; mānusha, “human (nom. m. f. n. mānushah, mānushī, mānusham, r. 48. 49. 50.); shrimat, prosperous" (nom. m. f. n. shrīmān, shrīmatī, shrīmat, r. 62.); balin, strong" (nom. m. f. n. balī, balini, bali, r. 67.).
Compound adjectives are most abundant. The following are examples : phalopeta, “possessed-of-fruit "; durbuddhi, “evil-minded ”; alpatanu, “small-bodied "; sarvajit, “all-conquering "; sujanman, “ well-born "; gatachetas, “ bereft-of-sense "; which are thus referrible to their respective classes.
71. The degrees of comparison are formed in two ways; Ist, by adding to the crude m tara (nom. -tarah, -tarā, -taram, cf. Greek tepos) for the comparative ; and 7 tama (nom. -tamah,
* When it is remembered that final h often becomes s, and that a is equivalent in pronunciation to u, the three genders of this adjective might be written priyus priyā, priyum ; thus offering a perfect similarity to Latin adjectives in us.
-tamā, -tamam, cf. Greek tatos) for the superlative.
most holy," declined like nouns of the first class (r. 48. 49. 50.). So, also, dhanavat, "wealthy," dhanavattara," more wealthy," dhanavattama, “most wealthy"; and dhanin, dhanitara, dhanitama (r. 20.1).
2dly, by adding $uæ īyas (nom. -īyān, -īyasī, -īyah, cf. Greek (wv) for the comparative, and sy ishtha (nom. -ishthah -ișhthā, -ishtham, cf. Greek (OTOS) for the superlative. In general, the only change that takes place before these affixes is the rejection of a final vowel, or of an affix. Thus, balin," strong," becomes bal, making actua balīyas, “ stronger” (see r. 69.f), afse balishtha “strongest (declined like nouns of the first class); laghu, “light,” becomes lagh, making laghīyas, “lighter," laghishtha, “lightest.” Observe, however, that these affixes do not often imply comparison, but simply excess : thus, balīyas and balishtha more usually signify very strong.'
of But besides the rejection of the final, the crude often undergoes considerable change, as in Greek; and its place is sometimes supplied by a substitute. Thus, mridlu, “soft," becomes mrad, making mradīyas, mradişhtha; guru, “heavy," gar, making garīyas (cf. Latin gravius), garishtha ; priya, “dear,” pra, making preyas, preşhtha; bahu, “many,” bhū, making bhūyas, bhuyishtha ; dirgha, “long," drāgh ; dūra, “far,” dav; antika,“ near,” ned; kshudra, “small,” kshod ; yuvan, "young,” yav; prashasya, “good,” shra ; * alpa, “small,” kan ; uru (eủpús), “large,” var, making varīyas, varishtha (Fåplotos). See Prof. Eastwick's translation of Bopp's Comp. Gram. $. 298.
Sect. IV.-NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
72. Cardinals. epi eka, 1; fa dwi, 2; fa tri, 3; app chatur, 4; which are thus declined.
Eka, “one ” (singular only), follows the declension of pronominals : m. ekah; dat. m. ekasmai ; nom. f. ekā; dat. f. ekasyai; nom. n. ekam (see sarva, r. 87.).
* Prof. Bopp derives shreyas and shreshtha from shrīmat, “fortunate,” the affix being rejected.
Dwi, “two " (dual only), is declined as if the crude were dwa : nom., acc., voc. m. dwau, f. n. dwe; ins., dat., ab. m. f. n. dwābhyām ; gen., loc. dwayoh.
Tri, “three,” and chatur, “four" (plural only), declined—
N. V. trayah,
tisrah, trīni, chatwārah, chatasrah, chatnāri. Ac. trin,
The neuter only differs from the masc. in the nom., voc., and
4 panchan, 5; 44 şhaşh, 6; HYGT saptan, 7; we ashtan, 8; 797 navan, 9; for dashan, 10.
73. Panchan, “five "; shash,“ six"; ashtan, “eight” (plural only); declined
N. Ac. V. pancha, shat, ashta or ashtau.
Ins. panchabhih, shadbhih, ashtabhih or ashțābhih. D. Ab. panchabhyah, shadbhyah, ashtabhyah or ashtābhyah. Gen. panchānām, shannām, ashtānām. Loc. panchasu, şhatsu, ashtasu or ashtāsu.
Saptan, navan, and dashan, and all other numerals ending in an, follow the declension of panchan.
Ekādashan, 11; dwādashan, 12; trayodashan, 13; chaturdashan, 14; panchadashan, 15; shodashan (USY), 16; saptadashan, 17; ashtādashan, 18; navadashan or ūnavinshati, 19; vinshati (fagura), 20; trinshat (fasta), 30; chatwārinshat (RITA), 40; panchāshat (41919), 50; şhaşhti (uft), 60; saptati (Hafa), 70; ashīti ( gilfat), 80; navati (Tafat), 90; shata, n. (FTA), 100; sahasra, n. (HEH), 1000. As from dashan, “ten,” are formed ekādashan, dwādashan, trayodashan, &c., so from vinshati, “twenty,” are formed ekavinshati, “twentyone"; dwāvinshati, “twenty-two "; trayovinshati,“twenty-three," &c. But due regard must be paid to the laws of combination; thus,
shadvinshati (afögift), 26; trayastrinshat, 33; shattrinshat, 36 ; cha'ncübliyi
tushchatwārinshat, 44; chatuhpanchāshat (q: #1917), 54; trayahsaptati (q:Anfa), 73; tryashīti (z4gilfa), 83 ; panchāshīti, 85; şhannavati (qurafat), 96.
Vinshati (20), and trinshat (30), are declined like fem. nouns of the third and fifth classes, usually in the singular. faguri frang, “he infixed twenty arrows." Shata (100), sahasra (1000), are neut. nouns of the first class, usually declined in the sing.; as, He# funt, “a thousand ancestors ": or they may govern a genitive case; as, HEB faqui (cf. the use of the Latin mille).
74. Ordinals. Prathama, “ first "; dwitīya, “ second "; tritiya, “third "; are declined as pronominals (see r. 87.).
Chaturtha, “fourth ” (cf. Tétaptos); panchama, “fifth "; şhaşhtha (98), “sixth "; saptama, "seventh "; ashtama,“
seventh "; ashtama, “eighth "; navama, ninth "; dashama, "tenth "; like nouns of the first class (nom. -ah, -ē, -am).
The ordinals from eleventh " to twentieth,” are formed from the cardinals, by rejecting the final n; thus, ekādasha (nom. -ah, -2, -am).
“Twentieth" is formed, either by adding the superlative affix Check 'tama to the cardinal, as vinshatitama ; or by rejecting the final,
and leaving vinsha (nom. -ah, -z, -am). So also trinshattama or trinsha," thirtieth." Similarly “fortieth " and "fiftieth." The
other decimal cardinals form the ordinals either by adding tama, nding or by changing ti to ta; as, saptatitama or saptata, “seventieth."
३ 2 3
t e 8 9
FORMATION OF THE CRUDE.
PRONOUNS have no crude state analogous to that of nouns, that is, no state distinct from all inflexion, serving as the basis on which all the cases are constructed.
The question then arises, what form of the pronoun is used in the formation of compound words. In the pronouns of the first and second persons, the ablative cases, singular and plural, and in the other pronouns, the nominative and accusative cases neuter, are considered as expressive of the most general and comprehensive state of the pronoun. These cases, therefore, discharge the office of a crude, and are constantly found at the commencement of compound words.
DECLENSION OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
75. Ha mat, “I,” is taken for the crude of the sing. ; and we asmat, “we,” for the crude of the plur. of the first personal pronoun.
66 we.” वयं vayam, ,
N. We aham, "I."
we two," āvām, “us two," * wengi āvābhyām,
āvābhyām, terut: āvayoh,*
WATC asmān, “ us.”*
भस्मासु asmāsu. .
76. RT twat, “thou," is taken for the crude of the sing, ; and 4 yuşhmat, “you," for the crude of the plural of the second personal pronoun.
* The acc. sing. may also be At; the dat., gen. À; the acc., dat., gen. dual att; the acc., dat., gen. plur. 97: (cf. Lat. nos).