Imatges de pÓgina


The declension of substantives involves that of adjectives; and, as already seen, the three examples of substantives, given under each class, serve as the model for the three genders of adjectives falling under the same class. Adjectives, in their simplest form, not derived from substantives, are very rarely found in Sanscrit. Such as do occur belong chiefly to the first and third classes of nouns; as, priya, as, priya, “dear" (nom. m. f. n. priyah, priyā, priyam,* r. 48. 49. 50.); sūdhu, "good" (nom. m. f. n. sūdhuh, sādhuh or sādhwī, sādhu, r. 54. 55. 49. 56.).

Adjectives formed from substantives are very numerous, as may

be seen by a reference to r. 38. 42. and 43. IV.

They belong

chiefly to the first, fifth, and sixth classes of nouns. The following examples may be added to those already given; mānuṣha, “human” (nom. m. f. n. mānuṣhah, mānuṣhī, mānuṣham, r. 48. 49. 50.); shrimat, prosperous" (nom. m. f. n. shrīmān, shrīmatī, shrīmat, r. 62.); balin, strong" (nom. m. f. n. balī, balini, bali, r. 67.).



Compound adjectives are most abundant. The following are examples: phalopeta, "possessed-of-fruit "; durbuddhi, "evil-minded "; alpatanu, "small-bodied "; sarvajit, "all-conquering "; sujanman, "well-born"; gatachetas, "bereft-of-sense "; which are thus referrible to their respective classes.


Nom. m. phalopetah | durbuddhih alpatanuh


sujanma gatachetāh

sujanma gatachetah

Nom. f. phalopeta durbuddhih alpatanuh sarvajit
Nom. n. phalopetam durbuddhi alpatanu sarvajit sujanma gatachetah

71. The degrees of comparison are formed in two ways; 1st, by adding to the crude tara (nom. -tarah, -tarā, -taram, cf. Greek 7€ρos) for the comparative; and tama (nom. -tamah,

* When it is remembered that final h often becomes s, and that a is equivalent in pronunciation to u, the three genders of this adjective might be written priyus priyā, priyum; thus offering a perfect similarity to Latin adjectives in us.




-tamā, -tamam, cf. Greek TαTоs) for the superlative. Thus, punya, “ holy, " पुण्यतर punyatara, more holy," gun punyatama, most holy," declined like nouns of the first class (r. 48. 49. 50.). So, also, dhanavat, "wealthy," dhanavattara, "more wealthy," dhanavattama, "most wealthy"; and dhanin, dhanitara, dhanitama (r. 20.†). 2dly, by adding чīyas (nom. -īyān, -īyasī, -īyah, cf. Greek twv) for the comparative, and ishṭha (nom. -ishṭhah -iṣhṭhā, -iṣhṭham, cf. Greek OTOS) for the superlative. In general, the only change that takes place before these affixes is the rejection of a final vowel, or of an affix. Thus, balin, "strong," becomes bal, making बलीयस् 4 baliyas, “stronger" (see r. 69.†), a balishtha “strongest af (declined like nouns of the first class); laghu, "light," becomes lagh, making laghiyas, “lighter," laghishtha, “lightest." however, that these affixes do not often imply comparison, but simply excess: thus, baliyas and balishtha more usually signify "very strong."

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But besides the rejection of the final, the crude often undergoes considerable change, as in Greek; and its place is sometimes supplied by a substitute. Thus, mridu, “soft,” becomes mrad, making mradīyas, mradishṭha; guru, “heavy,” gar, making garīyas (cf. Latin gravius), garishtha; priya, "dear,” pra, making preyas, preshtha; bahu, "many," bhu, making bhūyas, bhuyishtha; dirgha, "long," drāgh; dūra, "far," dav; antika, "near," ned; kshudra, "small," kshod; yuvan, 'young," yav; prashasya, "good," shra; * alpa, "small," kan; uru (evpús), “large,” var, making varīyas, variṣhṭha (Fȧpioтos). See Prof. Eastwick's translation of


Bopp's Comp. Gram. §. 298.


72. Cardinals.

Ta eka, 1; fɛ dwi, 2; fa tri, 3; a chatur, 4; which are thus declined.


Eka, one" (singular only), follows the declension of pronominals : nom. m. ekah; dat. m. ekasmai; nom. f. ekā; dat. f. ekasyai; nom. n. ekam (see sarva, r. 87.).

* Prof. Bopp derives shreyas and shreshtha from shrimat, "fortunate," the affix being rejected.

Dwi, two" (dual only), is declined as if the crude were dwa : nom., acc., voc. m. dwau, f. n. dwe; ins., dat., ab. m. f. n. dwābhyām; gen., loc. dwayoh.

Tri, "three," and chatur, "four" (plural only), declined—

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The neuter only differs from the masc. in the nom., voc., and

acc. cases.

पञ्चन् pañchan, 5; षम् shash, 6; सप्तन् saptan, 7; अष्टन् ashtan, 8 ; नवन् navan, 9 ; दशन् dashan, 10.

73. Panchan, "five"; shash, "six"; ashṭan, "eight" (plural only); declined—

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Saptan, navan, and dashan, and all other numerals ending in an, follow the declension of panchan.

Ekādashan, 11; dwādashan, 12; trayodashan, 13; chaturdashan, 14; panchadashan, 15; shoḍashan (s), 16; saptadashan, 17; aṣhṭādashan, 18; navadashan or ūnavinshati, 19; vinshati (fåşıfı), 20 ; trinshat (f), 30; chatwarinshat (in) 40; panchashat (चत्वारिंशत् ), (1), 50; ṣhaṣhti (чfg), 60; saptati (f), 70; ashīti (apfifa), 80; navati (f), 90; shata, n. (), 100; sahasra, n. (g), 1000. As from dashan, "ten," are formed ekādashan, drūdashan, trayodashan, &c., so from vinshati, "twenty," are formed ekavinshati, “twentyone"; dwāvinshati, "twenty-two "; trayovinshati, “twenty-three,” &c. But due regard must be paid to the laws of combination; thus,

shadvinshati (ffa), 26; trayastrinshat, 33; shaṭtrinshat, 36; chatushchatwarinshat, 44; chatuhpanchashat (g), 54; trayahsaptati (f), 73; tryashiti (f), 83; panchāshīti, 85; shannavati (घण्णवति), 96.

Vinshati (20), and trinshat (30), are declined like fem. nouns of the third and fifth classes, usually in the singular. As, शायकान् विंशतिं निचखान, "he infixed twenty arrows. " Shata (100), sahasra (1000), are neut. nouns of the first class, usually declined in the sing.; as, a fun, "a thousand ancestors": or they may govern a genitive case; as, a faui (cf. the use of the Latin mille).


74. Ordinals.

Prathama, "first"; dwitiya, "second"; tritiya, "third"; are declined as pronominals (see r. 87.).

Chaturtha, "fourth" (cf. TéтαρTоs); panchama, "fifth"; shashtha (48), “sixth"; saptama, "seventh "; ashṭama, "eighth "; navama, ninth "; dashama, "tenth "; like nouns of the first class (nom. -ah, -i, -am).


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The ordinals from "eleventh to 'twentieth," are formed from the cardinals, by rejecting the final n; thus, ekādasha (nom. -ah, -i, -am).

"Twentieth" is formed, either by adding the superlative affix 'tama to the cardinal, as vinshatitama; or by rejecting the final, and leaving vinsha (nom. -ah, -i, -am). So also trinshattama or trinsha, "thirtieth." Similarly "fortieth and "fiftieth," The other decimal cardinals form the ordinals either by adding tama, or by changing ti to ta; as, saptatitama or saptata, "seventieth."

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9 t

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6 7

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PRONOUNS have no crude state analogous to that of nouns, that is, no state distinct from all inflexion, serving as the basis on which all the cases are constructed.

The question then arises, what form of the pronoun is used in the formation of compound words. In the pronouns of the first and second persons, the ablative cases, singular and plural, and in the other pronouns, the nominative and accusative cases neuter, are considered as expressive of the most general and comprehensive state of the pronoun. These cases, therefore, discharge the office of a crude, and are constantly found at the commencement of compound words.



mat, "I," is taken for the crude of the sing.; and T asmat, "we," for the crude of the plur. of the first personal

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āvām, us two,"*

आवाभ्यां āvābhyām,

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अस्मान् asmān,



f: asmābhih. अस्मभ्यं asmabhyam.*

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अस्माकं asmākam.*




T: avayoh,*


अस्मासु asmāsu.

twat, "thou," is taken for the crude of the sing,; and yu yushmat, “you," for the crude of the plural of the second personal pronoun.

* The acc. sing. may also be ; the dat., gen. ; the acc., dat., gen. dual ; the acc., dat., gen. plur. : (cf. Lat. nos).

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