Imatges de pàgina

Observe, that the masculine noun chandramas is also the model for the fem. noun opsaras, “ a nymph,' and for the fem. form of compound adjectives, and that it only difers from the neuter in the nom. and acc. cases.

Nearly all simple substantives in as are neuter ; but when these Substantives are taken to form a compound adjective, they are declinable also in the masculine and feminine like chandramas. Thus, when mamas is taken to form the compound adjective mahāmanas, “ magnanimous," it makes in the nom. (masc. and fem.) mahāmanāh, mahāmanasau, mahāmanasah. In the same way is formed darmanas, “ evil-minded " (nom. durmamāh, &c.), to which a very remarkable analogy is presented by the Greek 0uouew)s, m. and f, making in the neut. puoracv6ं, derived from |५6vos. (Prof. Eastwick's transl. of Bopp's Comp. Gram. S. 146.).

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ncut. like the masc., except in the nom. and acc., which are oioidupuh, Uioidush?, १:āoidupansi. The advanced student will here obServe, that as the 2d preterite of १:id, “to know,' is used as a present tense, So the participle of the 2d preterite is used as a present participle, the reduplicated syllable only being rejected.

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The declension of Substantives involves that of adjectives ; and, as already Seen, the three examples of substantives, given under each class, Serve as the model for the three genders of adjectives falling under the same class. Adjectives, in their simplest form, not derived from substantives, are very rarely found in Sanscrit. Such as do occur belong chiefly to the first and third classes of nouns; as, priya, “ dear" (nom. m. f n. priyah, priyā, priyam,* r. 48. 49. 50); sādha, " good " (nom. m. f n. sādhah, sādhul or 8adhioं, sādhu, r. 54. 55. 49. 56.).

Adjectives formed from substamtiges are very numerouS, as may be seen by a reference to r. 38. 42. and 43. Iv. They belong chiefly to the first, fifth, and sixth classes of nouns. The following examples may be added to those already given ; māmushd, “ human'' (nom. m. f n. mānusha/, mānushi, Imānusham, r. 48. 49. 50); shrimat, “ prosperous" (nom. m. f n. shrāmān, shrimatā shrāmat, r. 62.); balin, “ strong ” (nom. m. f n. balo, balimo, bali, r. 67.).

Compoadmd adjectices are most abundant. The following are examples : p/kalopeda, “ possessed-of-fruit ''; darbuddhi, “ evil-minded '; alpadama, “ Small-bodied '; 8arodjit, “ all-conguering '; 8agjammam, “ well-born '; gatachedas, bereft-of-sense '; which are thus referrible to their respective classes.

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71. The degrees of comparison are formed in two ways ; Ist, by adding to the crude तर् dara (nom. -tara/), -tarā, -daram, cf Greek repog) for the comparative ; and तम tama (nom. -tama/),

* When it is remembered that final h often becomes s, and that d is eguivalent in pronunciation to a, the three genders of this adjective might be written priyas

pri/ā, pri/um ; thus offering a perfect Similarity to I,atin adjectives in us.

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* But besides the rejection of the final, the crude often undergoes considerable change, as in Greek; and its place is Sometimes Supplied by a Substitute. Thus, mridu, “ Soft,” becomes mrad, making mradijas, maradightha ; guru, “ heavy," gar, making gariyas (cf. Latin gragius), garishtha g priya, *dear," pra, making 1yreyus, preshtha ; bahu, “ many,' bhā, making bhaiyas, bhuyightha y dirgha, “ long,'' drāgh g dira, “ far,' dat; ; dndikd, “ mear,' med s kshudra, “ small,' kshod ; guoum, “ young;' /ao s prashasya, *good,' shra ; * alptt, “ Small," kaa g uru (eipts), “ large,'' oar, making oari/as, oarishtha (Faptoros). Sce Prof. Eastwick's translation of

Bopp's Comp. Gram. S. 298.


72. Cardimals. एक eka, I ; द्वि dioi, 2 ; चि tri, 3; चतुर् chatur, 4 ; which are thuS declimed. Eka, “ one " (singular only), follows the declension of pronominals : nom. m. eka/। ; dat. m. ekasmai ; nom. f. ekā ; dat- f ekasyai; nom. n. ekam (see sarca, r. S7.),

* Prof. Bopp derives shregas and shreshtha from shrimat, “ fortunate," the

affix being rejected.

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