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-CRUDES IN an AND in, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND
64. Masculine and Feminine form of Crudes in an, declined like
65. Observe, that it is necessary to give two examples of nouns in an, because if an be preceded by m or v, and this m or v be conjunct with a preceding consonant, the noun is then declined like atman. Hence, adhwan, m. a road," and
drishwan, m. a looker," make in the ins. adhwanā, drishwanā. But if this m or v be not conjunct, then the noun follows rājan; as, laghiman, m.“lightness"; ins. laghimnā. And if an be preceded by any other consonant than m or v, even although it be conjunct,
* As remarked in p. 3., this word is usually pronounced rāgyah; but, for the better illustration of the present subject, is represented by jn throughout the declension of this noun.
† Or rājani.
the noun then also follows rājan; as, mūrddhan, m. head"; ins. a
There are no simple feminine nouns in an; but when masculine nouns are taken to form the last member of a compound adjective they take a feminine and neuter form; as in mahātman, magnanimous. The feminine form, however, is declined precisely like the masculine, and the neuter follows the declension of karman below.
66. Neuter Crudes in man, declined like
In the former the m is conjunct, in the latter, not.
and ♬ (nomen).
karmanā? The other cases like the masc.; as, gen. plur. ·ATAT nāmnā. karmaṇām, nāmnām; loc. karmasu, nāmasu.
So also the neuter nouns, janman, veshman, ashman, varman, vartman, charman, chhadman, follow the declension of karman; but dāman, sāman, dhāman, vyoman, roman, preman, that of nāman. When neuters in an compose the last member of compound adjectives, they may take the masc. or fem. form.†
श्वानौ, श्वानः ;
↑ Anomalies in an:, m. (cf. kvwv), “a dog.” Nom., acc. ali, mài, ya:. In all these anomalies the acc. c. plur. is generally the clue to the form assumed by the noun before the terminations beginning with vowels. Thus, instr. is a, i, &c. So again, yq, m. f. n. (cf. juvenis) "young"; nom. yuvā, yuvānau, yuvānah; acc. yuvānam, yuvānau, yūnah; inst. yūnā, yuvabhyām, &c. FEET, a Brahmicide"; nom. -हा, -हणौ, -हणः ; acc. - हणं, -, ; instr. &c.
अहन्, n. a day"; nom. and acc.
अहनी, अहानि ; instr. अह्ना, अहोभ्यां, अहोभिः ; dat. अहे &c.
* When rājan is taken to form a compound of this kind, it is declined like deva
(r. 48.); as, nom. mahārājah; acc. mahārājam, &c.
† As in the sentence, Vedagarbhanama Brāhmana āsīt, "There was a Brahmin named Vedagarbha."
67. Masculine form of Crudes in in, declined like fq, “rich.”
in in is declined like nadī; as, nom. dhaninī, kāriņā (see r. 49.). The neuter form follows the declension of vāri; as, nom. ufa, ufanî, ynîfa (see r. 53.).
Pathin, m. "a path," is declined irregularly; thus, sing. panthāh, panthānam, patha, pathe, pathah, pathi, pathin; dual, panthānau, pathibhyām, pathoh; plur. panthanah, pathah, pathibhih, pathibhyah, patham, pathishu.
SEVENTH CLASS.-CRUDES IN as, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER.
Declined like चन्द्रमस् chandramas, m. 66 the moon"; and मनस् manas, n. "the mind." 68. Masculine and Feminine form of Crudes in as, declined like aa· चन्द्रमा: chandramāh, चन्द्रमसौ chandramasau,
I. चन्द्रमसा chandramasū, चन्द्रमोभ्यां chandramobhyām, चन्द्रमोभि: chandramobhih.
The other cases are like the neuter below, excepting the voc. dual and plur. (r. 50.).
69. Neuter Crudes in as, declined like (μévos, mens).
Observe, that the masculine noun chandramas is also the model for the fem. noun apsaras, a nymph," and for the fem. form of compound adjectives, and that it only differs from the neuter in the nom. and acc. cases.
Nearly all simple substantives in as are neuter; but when these substantives are taken to form a compound adjective, they are declinable also in the masculine and feminine like chandramas. Thus, when manas is taken to form the compound adjective mahāmanas, “magnanimous," it makes in the nom. (masc. and fem.) mahāmanāḥ, mahāmanasau, mahāmanasah. In the same way is formed durmanas, "evil-minded" (nom. durmanah, &c.), to which a very remarkable analogy is presented by the Greek dvoμevn's, m. and f., making in the neut. dvoμevés, derived from μévos. (Prof. Eastwick's transl. of Bopp's Comp. Gram. §. 146.).
† There are a few neuter nouns in is and us, which are declined exactly like 8, and r for o manas, substituting i and u for a throughout, and therefore sh for (r. 30. 27.). Thus, Havis, "ghee"; nom. and acc. Havih, Havishi, Havīnshi; ins. Havishā, Havirbhyām, Havirbhih, &c.; and chakshus, "the eye"; nom. and acc. chakshuh, chakshuṣhi, chakshūnshi; ins. chakshuṣhā, chakshurbhyām, chakshurbhih, &c. Ashis, f. "a blessing," makes in the nom. āshīḥ, āshiṣhau, āshiṣhah; acc. āshisham, āshiṣhau, ashishah, &c. Similarly, dos, m. "the arm"; but this last is in the ins. either dosha or doshna; dat. doshe or doshne, &c. Puns, “a male”; nom. pumān, pumānsau, pumānsah; acc. pumānsam, pumānsau, punsah; ins. punsā pumbhyam, &c.
Adjectives in the comparative degree, formed by the affix iyas (r. 71.), follow the declension of manas, except in the nom. and acc. Thus, baliyas, more powerful"; nom. balīyān, baliyānsau, baliyānsah; acc. baliyānsam, baliyānsau, baliyasah; ins. balīyasā, balīyobhyām, &c. The voc. sing is baliyan. The fem. form is declined like nadi (r. 49.). The neut. form is declined like manas throughout.
Participles of the 2d preterite (r. 127.), like vividwas (from vid, "to know") and jagmivas (from gam, "to go") are declined in some of their cases as if they were written vividus, jagmyus; and in others as if written vividwat, jagmivat. Thus, nom. vividwān, -wānsau,-wānsah; acc. vividwānsam, -wānsau, vividuṣhah; ins. vividushā, vividwadbhyām, vividwadbhih. The root vid," to know," has an irregular pres. part. vidwas, used often as an adjective ("learned"), and declined exactly like vividwas. These participles are declined like nadī in the fem. (r. 49.), and in the
neut. like the masc., except in the nom. and acc., which are vividwah, vividuṣhī, vividwānsi. The advanced student will here observe, that as the 2d preterite of vid, "to know," is used as a present tense, so the participle of the 2d preterite is used as a present participle, the reduplicated syllable only being rejected.
EIGHTH CLASS.-CRUDES IN any Consonant except t, n, s, MASCULine,
FEMININE, AND NEUTER.
70. This class consists principally of roots taken to form the last member of compound words. They are not of very common occurrence, except as ending in t or d (see karmakrit, r. 59.). The only difficulty in their declension arises from their combination with those terminations in the scheme at r. 58., which begin with consonants, viz. three cases in the dual, and four in the plural. Whatever change, however, takes place in the nominative, is preserved before these consonantal terminations. Thus, masc. and fem. bhuj, “an eater": nom. bhuk; ins. dual bhugbhyām; ins. plur. bhugbhih; loc. bhukshu. So again sprish, nom. sprik;* and in the other cases, sprigbhyām, sprigbhih, sprikshu. So again rāj,
nom. rāṭ (uz); and the other cases, rāḍbhyām, rāḍbhih, rāṭsu. And lih, "a licker," nom. lit (f); and the other cases, liḍbhyām, lidbhih, litsu. And duh, nom. dhuk; and the other cases, dhugbhyām, dhugbhih, dhukshu. Before the terminations which begin with vowels, the final consonant of the root, whatever it may be, is always preserved. Thus, acc. bhujam, sprisham, rājam, liham, duham, &c.; ins. bhujā, sprishā, rājā, lihā, duhā, &c. The neuter is as follows: nom., acc., voc. (sing., dual, and plur.), bhuk, bhujī, bhunji; rāt, rājī, rānji; lit, lihi, linhi; dhuk, duhi, dunhi.
†The few simple nouns which fall under this class are declined on a similar principle. But asṛij, n. “blood” (nom. asṛik), makes in the ins. asṛijā or asnā; dat. asrije or asne; acc. pl. asṛinji or asāni: ap, f. "water," is declined in the plural only; thus, apah, apah, adbhih, adbhyah, apām, apsu, apah: div, f." the sky," sing. nom. dyauh; acc. divam or dyām; ins. divā, &c.; dual. divau, dyubhyām, divoh; plur. nom. acc. divah; ins. dyubhih, &c.
happear to be nearly allied to k, and often pass into k in Greek and Latin words. Thus, from dasha, “ ten,” deka, “decem”; from ¿çu, kapdia, “cor.”