Imatges de pÓgina


55. Feminine Crudes in u, like ug dhenu, a milch cow." N. og: dhenuh, धेनू dhenu, ,

a: dhenavah. Ac. Ti dhenum,


ug: dhenūh. 1. rat dhenuā,

धेनुभ्यां dhenubhyām, üqft: dhenubhih. D. Gdhenave,*

dhenubhyām, 1-4 dhenubhyah. Ab. YGt: dhenoh,*


dhenubhyah. G. dhenoh,* Wat: dhenuroh,

uqtai dhenünām. L. A dhenau,*


धेनुषु dhenushu. . V. YG dheno,



56. Neuter Crudes in u, like my madhu,honey," "wine(uédu). मधु madhu, मधुनो madhuni,

Ayfa madhūni. Ac.


madhūni. I. मधुना madhund, , मधुभ्यां madhubhyam, Ayfar: madhubhih. D. Aya madhune,


yaz: madhubhyah. Ab. AYT: madhunah,


madhubhyah. G. madhunah, Ayat: madhunoh, मधूनां madhunām. L. Ayfa madhuni,


मधुषु madhushu. मधु

madhu or Aut madho.


Although there are but few substantives declined like dhenu and madhu, yet it is important to study their declension, as well as that of the masc. noun bhānu; for all simple adjectives like tanu, and all like pipāsu (r. 40.), and all other simple adjectives in u, and all compound adjectives ending in u, are declined like bhānu in the masc.; dhenu in the fem.; and madhu in the neut. Many adjectives in u, however, optionally follow the declension of nadı, in the fem.; as, tanu makes its nom. fem. either tanuh or tanni.

of There are one or two feminine nouns in ū long, whose declension must be noticed here : as, ay, “a wife,” declined analogously to nadī. Nom. sing. dual. and plur. vadhūh, vadhwau, vudhwah ; acc. vadhūm, vadhwau, vadhūh; ins. vadhwā, vadhūbhyām, vudhūbhih ; dat. vadhwai, vadhūbhyām, vadhūbhyah ; abl. vadhwāh, &c.;

* The dat. may also be dhenwai ; the ab. and gen. dhenwah ; the loc. dhenwām.

gen. vadhwāh, vadhwoh, vadhūnām; loc. vadhwām, vadhwoh, vadhūşhu ; voc. vadhu. So again, y, “the earth,” declined analogously to 7. Nom. sing. dual. and plur. bhūh, bhuvau, bhuvah; acc. bhuvam, bhuvau, bhuvah; ins. bhuvā, bhūbhyām, bhūbhih ; dat. bhuve or bhuvai, &c.; abl. and gen. bhuvah or bhuvāh, &c.; loc. bhuvi or bhuvām, &c.


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font pitā,

fond pitarau,

CRUDES IN tri 7, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER. Declined like çtą dātri, m. f. n. “a giver, forç pitri, m. a futher." 57. Masculine form of Crudes in tri, like chą (dator, dotvo), and farą

(pater). ScraT dātā,

Stato dātārau, N.

START: dātārah.

farare: pitarah.

dātārau, Ac. {stare dātāram, पितरं pitaram, pitarau,

furiat pitrīn, &c. 1. EET dātrā, ,

Grazi dātribhyām, grafat: dātribhih. D. दात्रे datre,

dātribhyām, crava: dātribhyah. Ab. era: dātuh,


dātribhyah. G. dātuh, eteit: dātroh,

Grqui dātrīnām. L. craft dātari,


Gas datrishu. V.

Graco dātrīn.

cia dātar,


OBS. Nouns of relationship like pitri only differ from nouns

agency like dātri in the nom. dual and plural, and the acc. sing. and dual, where the former has the penultimate short, the latter, long

Feminine nouns of relationship like mātri, “a mother,” are declined like pitri, except in the acc. plural Area.

op anri, “a man,” is declined like pitri (nom. nā, &c.), but usually makes qui in the gen. plural.

The feminine form of nouns of agency in tri is declined like nadā ; as, nom. çrat, &c. (see r. 49.).

The neuter form follows the declension of vāri; as, nom. acc. CT, craut, grafu (see r. 53.).


General Observations. 58. The first four classes of nouns, whose declension has just been considered, comprise nearly all the substantives in the language. If we except substantives ending in

man and


the last four classes of nouns consist almost entirely of adjectives, participles, and roots, taken to form the last member of compound words. There is one general scheme of terminations applicable to all nouns ending in consonants. It is as follows:

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This scheme applies without exception to the few substantives, and to the masculine of the many adjectives and participles, whose crudes end in consonants. It also applies, with the exception of the nom. and acc. cases, to the neuter of these same adjectives and participles; but their feminine generally follows the declension of nadē (r. 49.). The nominative singular admits of so much variation, that no one termination is general enough to be inserted in the scheme.

Many of the terminations will be already familiar to the learner, especially those of the dual and plural. Indeed, certain terminations prevail, with various modifications, in all Sanscrit nouns: and this prevalence of certain sounds, as characteristic of certain cases, has led native grammarians into the error of constructing a technical scheme of terminations, which they apply universally in the declension of every noun in the language. This technical scheme does, in point of fact, correspond with the

scheme we have given above, as applicable to the last four classes ; but when, on comparing this with the scheme belonging to the first class (r. 47.), it is seen how very great is the dissimilarity between the two; and when it is remembered that the first class embraces a much larger number of nouns than all the other seven classes combined, there seems but little reason for any

such process of generalization. For surely if any general scheme is given at all, it should be that which is most universally applicable; and if any system of adaptation is to be adopted, it should consist in an adaptation of the smaller number to the larger, rather than the larger to the smaller; or we are led into endless alteration and substitution, and very unnecessary perplexity and confusion.


of There are two or three useful words in the language ending in ai, o, and which conform to the scheme of nouns ending in consonants. Thus, rai, m. " wealth.” N. rāh, rāyau, rāyah; A. rāyam, rāyau, rāyah ; I. rāyā, rābhyām, rābhih, &c. (cf. rebus). Go, m. f. “ an ox or cow.” N. gauh, gāvau, gāvah ; ac. gām, gāvau, gāh; ins. gavā, gobhyām, gobhih, &c. And nau, f. “a ship." N. nauh, nāvau, nāvah ; acc. nāvam, nāvau, nāvan ; ins. nāvā, fc. (Cf. valls, navis).

m. f. n.

FIFTH CLASS.—CRUDES IN T AND d, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER. Declined like a karmmakrit, m. f. n. “ a doer of work; yråfaç dharmmavid,

one who knows his duty; Than dhanavat, m. f. n. “ wealthy." 59. Masculine and Feminine form of Crudes in t and d, declined

like कर्मकृत् and धर्मविद् . N. on karmakrit,* कर्मकृतौ karmakritau, than: karmakritah. Ac. primarni karmakritam, I. कर्मकृता karmakrita, कर्मकृयां karmakridbhyām, कर्मकृद्भिः karmakridbhih. D. Han karmakrite,

Fa: karmakridbhyah. Ab. Qan: karmakritah,

Hint: karmakritoh, कर्मकृतां karmakritām. L. Qafa karmakriti,

karmaksitoh, कर्मकृत्सु karmakritsu. V. Like the nominative.


* Although r has the effect of doubling the letter immediately under it in the Sanscrit character (r. 33.), it is unnecessary always to double the letter in the Roman type. Strictly, however, this word should be written karmmakrit.

fac: dharmavidah.

N. mifaç dharmavid, faci dharmavidau,
Ac. y hrad dharmavidam, &c.
Loc. plur. vnfarg dharmavitsu, by r. 14.

The neuter form of nouns like karmakrit and dharmavid is, in the nom. and acc. कर्मकृत् , कर्मकृती, कर्मकृन्ति, धर्मविद्, धर्मविदो, WÁfarve. In the other cases it resembles the masc. and fem.

60. All substantives like han marut, m.“ wind," #iqz sampad, f. success," and

kumud, n. a lotus," follow the declension of karmakrit and dharmavid : thus, nom. marut, marutau, marutah ; sampad, sampadau, sampadah; kumud, kumudī, kumundi, &c.

61. The masculine form of crudes formed with the affixes vat and mat, is declined like धनवत् .

N. धनवान् dhanavān,

yra dhanavantau, Gam; dhanavantah. Ac. Yra dhanavantam, dhanavantau, Gen: dhanavatah. Voc. wa dhanavan,

The other cases are like karmakrit; as, ins. Van dhanavatā, &c.

The feminine form of nouns like dhanavat is declined like nadi: thus, nom. dhanavati, dhanavatyau, dhanavatyah, &c. (see r. 49.).

The neuter form is, in the nom. and ac., dhanavat, dhanavatī, dhanavanti; and in the other cases like the masculine.

62. So, also, all adjectives like that dhāmat, “wise,” and all active past participles like anaa kritavat, “ he did” (r. 127,): thus, , nom. masc. dhēmān, &c., kritavān, &c.; acc. dhīmantam, &c., kritavantam, &c.; voc. dhīman, &c. So, also, the nom. fem. dhīmatī, &c., kritavatī, &c.; and nom, neut, dhīmat, &c., kritavat, &c.

63. After dhanavat may also be declined present participles like yon pachat, “cooking” (r. 123.), except in the nom. sing., which is pachan instead of pachān. Many of these participles also differ from dhanavat, by inserting a nasal throughout all the cases of the feminine. Thus, nom. pachantī, pachantyau, pachantyah; acc. pachantīm, pachantyau, pachantih; ins. pachantyā, &c.

The adjective waT mahat, great,” is declined like dhanavat, but makes the penultimate long before the nasal; thus, nom. mahān, mahāntau, mahāntah; acc. mahāntam, mahāntau, mahatah : nom. fem. mahatī, &c. : nom. neut. mahat, mahatī, mahānti.

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