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55. Feminine Crudes in u, like ✯ dhenu, a milch cow."

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Although there are but few substantives declined like dhenu and madhu, yet it is important to study their declension, as well as that of the masc. noun bhānu; for all simple adjectives like tanu, and all like pipāsu (r. 40.), and all other simple adjectives in u, and all compound adjectives ending in u, are declined like bhānu in the masc.; dhenu in the fem.; and madhu in the neut. Many adjectives in u, however, optionally follow the declension of nadī, in the fem.; as, tanu makes its nom. fem. either tanuh or tannī.

†There are one or two feminine nouns in u long, whose declension must be noticed here: as,, "a wife," declined analogously to nadi. Nom. sing. dual. and plur. vadhuh, vadhwau, vadhwah; acc. vadhūm, vadhwau, vadhūh; ins. vadhwā, vadhūbhyām, vadhūbhih; dat. vadhwai, vadhūbhyām, vadhūbhyah; abl. vadhwāh, &c. ;

The dat. may also be dhenwai; the ab. and gen. dhenwah; the loc. dhenwām.

gen. vadhwāh, vadhwoh, vadhūnām; loc. vadhwām, vadhwoh, vadhūṣhu; voc. vadhu. So again,,"the earth," declined analogously to . Nom. sing. dual. and plur. bhūh, bhuvau, bhuvah; acc. bhuvam, bhuvau, bhuvah; ins. bhuvā, bhūbhyām, bhūbhih ; dat. bhuve or bhuvai, &c.; abl. and gen. bhuvah or bhuvah, &c.; loc. bhuvi or bhuvām, &c.

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CRUDES IN triπ, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER. “a father.”

FOURTH CLASS.

Declined like

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¿ī dātṛi, m. f. n. a giver, fūŋ pitri, m.

57. Masculine form of Crudes in tri, like T (dator, dorǹp), and fan

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OBS. Nouns of relationship like pitri only differ from nouns of agency like dātri in the nom. dual and plural, and the acc. sing. and dual, where the former has the penultimate short, the latter, long. Feminine nouns of relationship like matri, “a mother,” are declined like pitri, except in the acc. plural ■:.

nri, "a man," is declined like pitri (nom. nā, &c.), but usually makes qui in the gen. plural.

The feminine form of nouns of agency in tri is declined like nadī; as, nom. , &c. (see r. 49.).

The neuter form follows the declension of vāri; as, nom. acc. दातृ, दातृणी, दातृणि (seer. 53.).

SECT. II. DECLENSION OF CRUDES ENDING IN CONSONANTS, OR OF THE LAST FOUR CLASSES OF NOUNS. General Observations.

58. The first four classes of nouns, whose declension has just been considered, comprise nearly all the substantives in the language. If we except substantives ending in man and as, the last four classes of nouns consist almost entirely of adjectives, participles, and roots, taken to form the last member of compound words. There is one general scheme of terminations applicable to all nouns ending in consonants. It is as follows:

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This scheme applies without exception to the few substantives, and to the masculine of the many adjectives and participles, whose crudes end in consonants. It also applies, with the exception of the nom. and acc. cases, to the neuter of these same adjectives and participles; but their feminine generally follows the declension of nadi (r. 49.). The nominative singular admits of so much variation, that no one termination is general enough to be inserted in the scheme.

Many of the terminations will be already familiar to the learner, especially those of the dual and plural. Indeed, certain terminations prevail, with various modifications, in all Sanscrit nouns and this prevalence of certain sounds, as characteristic of certain cases, has led native grammarians into the error of constructing a technical scheme of terminations, which they apply universally in the declension of every noun in the language. This technical scheme does, in point of fact, correspond with the

scheme we have given above, as applicable to the last four classes; but when, on comparing this with the scheme belonging to the first class (r. 47.), it is seen how very great is the dissimilarity between the two; and when it is remembered that the first class embraces a much larger number of nouns than all the other seven classes combined, there seems but little reason for any such process of generalization. For surely if any general scheme is given at all, it should be that which is most universally applicable; and if any system of adaptation is to be adopted, it should consist in an adaptation of the smaller number to the larger, rather than the larger to the smaller; or we are led into endless alteration and substitution, and very unnecessary perplexity and confusion.

†There are two or three useful words in the language ending in ai, o, and аи, which conform to the scheme of nouns ending in consonants. Thus, rai, m. "wealth." N. rāh, rāyau, rāyah; A. rāyam, rāyau, rāyah; I. rāyā, rābhyām, rābhih, &c. (cf. rebus). Go, m. f. "an ox or cow." N. gauh, gāvau, gāvah; ac. gām, gāvau, gāh; ins. gavā, gobhyām, gobhih, &c. And nau, f. "a ship." N. nauh, nāvau, nāvah; acc. nāvam, nāvau, nāvan; ins. nāvā, &c. (Cf. vaûs, navis).

FIFTH CLASS.

Declined like

-CRUDES in t AND d, MASCULINE, FEMININE, and neuter.

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धर्म्मविद्

karmmakṛit, m. f. n. “ a doer of work”; fa dharmmavid, m. f. n. “one who knows his duty”; dhanavat, m. f. n. “wealthy.”

59. Masculine and Feminine form of Crudes in t and d, declined like कर्म्मकृत् and धर्म्मविद् .

N. 'कर्म्मकृत् karmakerit, *

Ac. कर्मकृतं karmakritam,

कर्म्मकृतौ karmakritau,

कर्मकृत: karmakritah.

I. कर्म्मकृता karmakerita, कर्म्मकृह्मां karmakeridbhyām, कर्म्मकृद्भि: karmakridbhih.

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* Although r has the effect of doubling the letter immediately under it in the Sanscrit character (r. 33.), it is unnecessary always to double the letter in the Roman type. Strictly, however, this word should be written karmmakrit.

N. धर्म्मविद dharmavid,

धर्म्मविदौ dharmavidau,

धर्म्मविद : dharmavidah.

Ac. чfa dharmavidam, &c.

Loc. plur. farg dharmavitsu, by r. 14.

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The neuter form of nouns like karmakrit and dharmavid is, in the nom. and acc. कर्म्मकृत् कर्म्मकृती, कम्मैकृन्ति, धम्र्म्मविद्, धर्म्मविदी, faf. In the other cases it resembles the masc. and fem. 60. All substantives like marut, m. wind,"

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sampad, f. success," and kumud, n. a lotus," follow the declension of karmakrit and dharmavid: thus, nom. marut, marutau, marutah; sampad, sampadau, sampadah; kumud, kumudi, kumundi, &c.

61. The masculine form of crudes formed with the affixes vat and mat, is declined like धनवत् .

N. धनवान् dhanavān,

Ac. धनवन्तं dhanavantam,

Voc. धनवन् dhanavan,

धनवन्तौ dhanavantau,
dhanavantau,

dhanavantah. dhanavatah.

The other cases are like karmakrit; as, ins. Rī dhanavatā, &c. The feminine form of nouns like dhanavat is declined like nadī: thus, nom. dhanavati, dhanavatyau, dhanavatyah, &c. (see r. 49.).

The neuter form is, in the nom. and ac., dhanavat, dhanavatē, dhanavanti; and in the other cases like the masculine.

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62. So, also, all adjectives like dhīmat, “wise," and all active past participles like kritavat, “he did” (r. 127,): thus, nom. masc. dhīmān, &c., kritavān, &c.; acc. dhimantam, &c., kritavantam, &c.; voc. dhiman, &c. So, also, the nom. fem. dhīmatī, &c., kritavati, &c.; and nom. neut. dhimat, &c., kritavat, &c.

63. After dhanavat may also be declined present participles like pachat, “cooking" (r. 123.), except in the nom. sing., which is pachan instead of pachan. Many of these participles also differ from dhanavat, by inserting a nasal throughout all the cases of the feminine. Thus, nom. pachantī, pachantyau, pachantyah; acc. pachantīm, pachantyau, pachantih; ins. pachantyā, &c.

The adjective mahat, "great," is declined like dhanavat, but makes the penultimate long before the nasal; thus, nom. mahān, mahāntau, mahāntah; acc. mahāntam, mahāntau, mahatah : nom. fem. mahati, &c. nom. neut. mahat, mahatī, mahānti.

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