Imatges de pàgina
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52. Femaimime Crades in i, like मति, “ the mind.'

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53. Neuter Crudes in i, like वारि , “ foater " (mare),

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Although there are few substantives declined like kagi and pārā, yet adjectives like shuchi (r. 39.), and compound adjectives ending in i, are declined like Kagā in the masc. ; like ???atā in the fem. ; and like apārā in the neuter.

f When a feminine noun ending in i is taken to form thelast member of a compound adjective, it must be declined like knoi in the masc., and tpāri in the neut.

Thus the compound adjective alpamati in the acc. plur. masc. would be alpamatin ;

* The dat. may also be matyai ; the ab. and gen. matyāh ; the loc. mat/tim.

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fem. alpamatih s neut. alpamatimi. The same holds g00d if a masc. or neut. moun

be taken to form the last member of a compound.

The declension of the neuter of this class follows the analogy of nouns in im. Hence, pāri Serves also as the model for the . neuters of adjectives and nouns of agency in in, like dhamim and /kārin (r. 66.); and the neuters of nouns of agency in ८ri, like /kartri। (r. 57.),

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Although there are but few substantives declined like d/exaa and madhad, yet it is important to study their declension, as well as that of the masc. noun bhāmac ; for all simple adjectives like danu, and all like pipāsu (r. 40.), and all other Simple adjectives ia a, and all Compound adjectives ending in a८, are declined like ८/%a??a in the maSc. ; dhema in the fem. ; and madha in the neut. Many adjectives in ad, however, Optionally follow the declension of ?aadतः, in the fem. ; aS, damad makes its nom. fem. either tamah Or da227297.

f There are one or two feminine nouns in । long, whose declension must be noticed here : as, वघू, “a wife,' declined analogously to madi. Nom. sing. dual. and plur. oadhāth, badhtouu, tyudhuldh s acc. oadhim, oudhucau, tyadhāh ; ins. oadharā,

oadhābhyām, cadhābhih g dat. cadhuai, oadhābhyām, cadhāibhyah; abl. oadhucā7a, &c.;


* The dat. may also be dhemulai ; the ab. and gen. dhentral ; the loc. dhcra toarn.

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OBS. Nouns of relationship like pitri only differ from nouns of .agency like dātri in the nom. dual and plural, and the acc. sing. and dual, where the former has the penultimate short, the latter, long. Feminine nouns of relationship like mātri, “ a mother,' are declined like pitri, except in the acc. plural मातॄः.

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General Obsercafions.
58. The first four classes of nouns, whose declension has just
been considered, comprise nearly all the substantives in the lan-
guage. If we except substantives ending in mam and as, the
last four classes of nouns consist almost entirely of adjectives,
participles, and roots, taken to form the last member of compound
words. There is one general Scheme of terminations applicable
to all nouns ending in consonants. It is as follows :-

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This Scheme applies without exception to the few substantives, and to the masculine of the many adjectives and participles, whose crudes end in consonants. It also applies, with the exception of the nom. and acc. cases, to the neuter of these same adjectives and participles; but their feminine generally follows the declension of nada (r. 49.), The nominative singular admits of so much variation, that no one termination is general enough to be inserted in the Scheme. Many of the terminations will be already familiar to the learner, eSpecially those of the dual and plural. Indeed, certain terminations prevail, with various modifications, in all Sanscrit nouns : and this prevalence of certain Sounds, as characteristic of certain cases, has led native grammarians into the error of constructing a technical Scheme of terminations, which they apply universally in the declension of erery moum in the language. । This technical Scheme does, in point of fact, correspond with the

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