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In the application of the above terminations, the finals of the crudes must first be rejected. Thus, taking deva, and rejecting the final, we have dev; and adding the terminations, we have the nom. devah, &c. The four examples are now declined in full.
48. Masculine Crudes in a, like a, "a deity" (deus).
a man," पुरुष,
In accordance with r. 21, such words as
man," Д, मृग, “a deer,” are written in the ins. sing. नरेण, पुरुषेण, मृगेण, and in the gen. plur. नराणां पुरुषाणां, मृगाणां, the cerebral nasal taking the place of the dental.
49. Feminine Crudes in ā and ī, like, “life," and t, “a river.”
50. Neuter Crudes in a, like, “a gift" (donum, dŵpov).
The rest like the masculine deva.
Observe, that since the voc. dual and plural of the Sanscrit noun coincides with the nom., it will, in future, be omitted.
† When a feminine noun, like jivā, is taken to form the last member of a compound adjective, it is declined like deva for the masculine, and dāna for the neuter. Thus, taking the feminine noun vidyā, "learning;" from this is formed the compound alpavidyā, "little learning:" and when this is used as a compound adjective it becomes, in the nom. masc. fem. and neut., alpavidyah, alpavidyā, alpavidyam, “possessed of little learning." On the same principle, a masculine noun takes the feminine and neuter terminations when forming the last member of a compound adjective; and a neuter noun, the masculine and feminine.
To convince the student of the absolute necessity of studying attentively the declension of this first class of nouns, he is recommended to turn back to r. 38. He will there find given, under fifteen heads, the various forms of nouns, substantive and adjective, which follow this declension. All the masculine substantives in this list are declined like deva; all the feminine either like jīvā or nadi; all the neuter like dāna. Again, all the adjectives in this list follow the same three examples for their three genders. Again, according to deva masculine, jīvā feminine, and dāna neuter, are declined all regular comparative and superlative degrees of the form punyatara, punyatama (r. 71.); all irregular superlatives of the form balishtha (r. 71.); all present participles of the forms kurvāṇa, kriyamāna (r. 124.); all passive past participles of the form krita, &c., which are the most common and useful of all verbal derivatives (r. 125. 1. 2. 3. 4.); all indefinite future participles, which are of constant occurrence, of the forms kārya, karaniya, kartavya (r. 129.); all participles of the second future, of the form karishyamana (r. 130.); many ordinals, like prathama (r. 74.). Lastly, according to nadē feminine, are also declined the feminines of adjectives like tanu (r. 40.); the feminines of innumerable adjectives
like dhanavat, dhimat (r. 42.), dhanin, and medhāvin (r. 43.); the feminines of nouns of agency like kārin (r. 131. 3.); the feminines of nouns of agency like kartṛi (r. 131. 2.); the feminines of irregular comparative degrees like balayas (r. 72. 69.†); the feminines of present participles like kurvat (r. 123. and 63.); the feminines of active participles of the third preterite like kritavat (r. 127. and 62.); the feminines of active participles of the second preterite like vividwas (r. 127. and 69.); the feminines of many ordinals like panchama (r. 74.).
Hence it is evident, that although we have arranged Sanscrit nouns under eight classes, the last seven classes contain but a small proportion of nouns and participles compared with the almost innumerable number embraced by the first. The student, therefore, ought not to advance a step further in the Grammar till he has made himself thoroughly master of this declension.
There are a few useful words (originally feminine, and not derived from masculines like nadī and putrī, in r. 38. xv.), such as, "prosperity,", "fear,", “shame,” which vary from the declension of nadi; thus, sing. nom. t:, acc. श्रियं, ins. श्रिया, dat. श्रिये or श्रियै, abl. and gen. श्रियः or श्रिया:, loc. श्रियि or faui. So again, f, "a woman," nom. sing. dual and plur. ì, faûì, fч:, acc. fi or tat, ftaut, fta: or at:, ins. fau, atui, alfu:, dat. f, &c., abl. and gen. f41: &c., loc. fi &c., voc. f &c. it, "fortune," agrees with &c. in making its nom.
CRUDES IN i, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER.
Declined like fa kavi, masc.
a poet"; f mati, fem. "the mind”; aft vāri, neut. "water."
51. Masculine Crudes in i, like afa,
So also, agni, "fire" (ignis); and nouns formed from dhā, “to hold”; as, sandhi, "union."
52. Feminine Crudes in i, like fa̸, the mind."
kavih N. fa: matih, variant̃ mati,
XI. मत्याmatya, मतिभ्यां matibhyām,
kavim Ac. fi matim, vnvɩ — matī,
kavih Ab. : mateh,*varına
53. Neuter Crudes in i, like, “water” (mare).
Although there are few substantives declined like kavi and vāri, yet adjectives like shuchi (r. 39.), and compound adjectives ending in i, are declined like kavi in the masc.; like mati in the fem.; and like vāri in the neuter.
† When a feminine noun ending in i is taken to form the last member of a compound adjective, it must be declined like kavi in the masc., and vāri in the neut. Thus the compound adjective alpamati in the acc. plur. masc. would be alpamatin ;
The dat. may also be matyai; the ab. and gen. matyāh; the loc. matyām.
fem. alpamatīh; neut. alpamatīni. The same holds good if a masc. or neut. noun be taken to form the last member of a compound.
The declension of the neuter of this class follows the analogy of nouns in in. Hence, vāri serves also as the model for the neuters of adjectives and nouns of agency in in, like dhanin and kārin (r. 66.); and the neuters of nouns of agency in tri, like kartri (r. 57.).
†There are two useful irregular masculine nouns in i; viz. af sakhi, “a friend,” nom. sing. dual and plur. sakhā, sakhāyau, sakhāyah; acc. sakhāyam, sakhāyau, sakhin; ins. sakhyā, sakhibhyām, sakhibhih; dat. sakhye, &c.; abl. and gen. sakhyuh, &c.; loc. sakhyau, &c.; voc. sakhe, &c. And ufa pati, “a master,” which, when not used in a compound word, follows sakhi in the five last cases sing. (thus, ins. patyā, &c.): in the other cases, kavi. But this word is almost always found as the last member of a compound, and is then regularly declined like kavi; thus, ins. bhūpatinū, “by the king." The noun f asthi, neut. “a bone," drops the final vowel in some of its cases; as, ins. sing. asthnā; dat. asthne; abl. asthnah, &c.
THIRD CLASS.-CRUDES IN u, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER.
Declined like bhānu, masc. the sun”; dhenu, fem. “a milch cow”;
madhu, neut. "honey.”
54. Masculine Crudes in u, like a bhānu, “the sun.”