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THE Sanscrit language is written in the character called Deva
The following are the Devanāgar letters, with their Observe that ar and ar are not distinct letters, but have been inserted amongst the diphthongs for reasons that will be afterwards apparent. That the semi-vowels have been placed in both Tables, as falling under the first, in their relation to i, a, ?i, Iri ; under the second, in their relation to.j, d, d, b. That / at the end of a word stands for Wisargah (:). That when n is found before the semi-vowels y, p, r, !, the Sibilants sh, 8/, &, and the aspirate / in the middle of a word, it represents the symbol Anuswāra ; and that ?m at the end of a word always represents the Same symbol. That the vowels च and ऋ will be represented by ri। and r, as distinguished from ग् िri and री rं, which represent the consonant r combined with the vowels i and a, Lastly, that the palatal sibilant शा will be represented by sh, as distinguished from sh, which represents the cerebral Sibilant ष.
eguivalents in the Roman character.
vOwELS, DIPHTHONGS, AND SEMI-VOwELS.
SH0RT ILONGः IMPR0PER DIPHTH0NGS | PR0PIER-DIPHTHONGS SBMIW0WEI,S. W0WEI,S. 0ALLED GUNA. 0ALLED WRIHOD'HI. W0WELS. •, •-५ Not ., Not) ____ Not, __-__ Not; "_ Imitial f्रal. | Init f्रं Initial rāे,1. Initial, I#]. |, अतः d | अा ।। 7 _ __ ~ , , 2ं ~ऽ ' . इ f a | शॆ १ ।। | खट्। 2ं e शं di | य ?/ - _ A। “x *\ उ .. ४| ऊ .. ā | स्रो ौ ं 0 | औ ौ aa| व 9 or p च . ?i| च्छ् १ अयं d?” | अाग् d?’ | र ?’ ल / CONSONANTS. _ – _ CORRE- C0RRE- NASAI, SWM_ ..,ं... | *" | sposptsG| sr0NDING |ं |i0 GA Bi) _ _ NASAI,S. SITBILANTS. ` | ANUSWARA. Initial Final Or called Medial. Wisargah. Gutturals,| क /ं ख /k/ |ग g घ g/| ङं ??० ह / : / | * ?? Or ??? Palatals, | च c/ छ् c//|ज j झ.j/ | ञ ? श।। 8/ य / Cerebrals,|ट ! ठ ८/ |ड d ढ d/| ण 1a ष 8/ ग् ?” Dentals, |त 4 य d/ |द d ध d/| न ?a स S ल / Labials, |प p फp/ |ब () भ b/ | म m व। worn।
ON THE METHOD OP W RITING THE VOWELS.
The vowels assume two forms, according as they are initial or not initial, Thus, ik is written इक्, but ki is written कि; short i, when not initial, being always written Ugfore the consonant dfoer which it is pronounced. Short a is never written, unless it begin a word, because it is Supposed to be inherent in every consOnant. ThuS, a/% is written अक्, but Ka is written क; the mark ऽ under the final k being used to shew that it has no a inherent in it. The vowels a८, ā, and ?i, rā, not initial, are written under the consonants after which they are pronounced ; as कु, कू, kia kā ; कृ, कृ, kri, Kr.* The Sanscrit is Said to p0SSess another wowel, wiZ. ल्ठ lri, which has not been given, as it Only occurs in one word in the language. The only use of introducing it in a Table like the above, is to shew the perfection of the Devamāgari alphabet ; for without it, we have no correSponding vowels or diphthongs to the semi-wowel ल !; but, with it, the last line of the Table may be filled up thus,
Every consonant is Supposed to have short a inherent in it, So that it is never necessary to write short a except at the beginning of a word. Hence, when any of the above simple consonants are Seen standing alone in any word, Short a must always be pronounced after them ; but when they are written in conjunction with any other vowel, this vowel of course takes the place of short a. Thus, Such a word as कलानतया would be pronounced 76alāmataya. The guestion then arises, how are we to know when consonants have to be pronounced together, without the intervention of any wowel ; as, for instance, /d and ?24y in the word klāndyā ? This occasions the necessity for compound conSOnants : *l and ?aty must then be combined together thus, झा, नय, and the word is written ङ्खानया. And here we have illustrated the two methods of compounding consonants, viZ. Ist, by writing them one above the other ; 2dly, by placing them side by side, omitting in all, except the last, the perpendicular line which lies to the right.
Almost all Compound letters are in this way resolvable into their component parts. There are two, however, which are not SO, viZ. छ् ksha and ज्ञ jma. The last is Commonly pronounced gya, and may therefore be represented by these letters. The following compound letters, being of very freguent occurrence, and not always obviously resolvable into their parts, are given with a view to attract the first attemtiom of the student. He may afterwards study the list in Prof. Wilson's Grammar.
क्ा /ंta, as in the word उक्तं ।aktam ; मै rma, as in the word कूमै /cārma. And here remark, that when र् r is the first letter of a cOmpound consonant, it is written above in the form of a semicircle ; when it is the dast letter, it is written below in the form of a Small stroke, as क्र Kra in the word क्रमेण /kramena. Again, `च 8/2c/ंd, as in ततश्र tatas/ic/ia. Here remark, that शा Sometimes changes its form to श्र, when combined with another consonant. च tra, as in तच tadra ; च chcha, as in अन्यच anyachcha ; ष्ट shta, as in वृष्ट /krishta ; द्य dya, as in अद्य adya ; ड ddha, as in बुडि buddhi; भ्य /ंya, as in तेभ्य: tebhya/ ; त //a, as in सुहृत्तमा: sa/irillama/; ; व्य gya, as in व्याध tyādha ; द्व diga, as in द्वाग् dipāra ; स्य &ya, as in तस्य 4a&/o ; स्त std ; मय ?myd ; ज्ञ d0/d ; ख्य /k/%/d ; झ ?a/%d ; ङ्गः ?ago ; च ficha ; ण्ड nda ; न्त mta.