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“ a deity," is masculine ; but dānam, “ a gift," neuter, And in other cases the meaning of the word : as, pitri, “ a father,'' is masculine ; and matri, “ a mother," feminine. । In Sanscrit, all the relations between the words in a sentence are expressed by inflections. A great many prepositions exist in the language, but these are very rarely used alone in government with any case, their chief use being as prefixes to verbs and nouns. This absence of Syntactical auxiliaries leads to the necessity for eight cases. These are called, I. nominative ; 2. aocusative ; 3. instrumental ; 4. dative ; 5. ablative ; 6. genitive ; 7. locative ; 8. vocative.* Of these, the third and seventh are new to the classical student. The instrumental denotes generally the instrument by which a thing is done ; as, tema kritam, “ done by him." The locatioe generally refers to the place or time in which any thing is done ; as, -4yodhyāyām "in -4yodhyā'; ;piruakale, “ in former time'; bhiimau, “ on the ground." Hence it follows that the ablatice is restricted to the sense from, and cannot be used, as in Latin and Greek, to express by, ?oith, in, at, om, &c. The noun has three numbers, Singular, dual, and plural.
SRCr. I.-DECLENSION OF CRUTOES ENDING IN WOWELS, OR OE' THE FIRST FOUR OLASSBS OE' NOUNS.
FIRST CLASS.-CRUDES IN d, MASCULINE AND NEUTER. ; IN 7 AND ?, FEMININE,
Declined like देव depa, mas. “ a deity "; जीवा jica, fem. “iif४"; नदी ?2ad, fem. “ a rāper"; and दान dāma, neuter, “a gifo." 47. By far the greatest number of masculine and neuter nouns, in Sanscrit, end in a in the crude form ; and by far the greatest number of feminine nouns end in either a Or ?. These we have arranged under the first Class, and the examples we are about to give will serve as the model, not only for Substantives, but also for all the adjectives given at r. 38. as falling under this class. For all adjectives which make a in the crude form of the masculine and neuter make a or ? in the feminine. Thus, taking the adjective sandara, “ beautiful.' The masculine is declined like deca (nom. sundara/); the feminine like jipā or nadi (nom.
* OBS. That these cases will sometimes be denoted by their initial letters. Thus, N. will denote nominative, I. instrumental.
f Both these cases are used to denote various other relations. See the Chapter on Syntax.
sandarā or sundar); the neuter like dāma (nom. sundaram), So great is the importance of this first class of nouns, that, to make its declension clearer, it will be advisable to give, in the
। The classical student will recognise in this scheme many reSemblances to the terminations of nouns in Latin and Greek, when it is remembered that the Sanscrit a corresponds to the Latin ad and the Greek o ; the Sanscrit ?m to the Latin wia and the Greek v ; the Sanscirt a or ? to the Latin a and the Geek १, or etoं, Or oं, Or in the gen. plur. co ; the Sanscrit )/ or , ८// to the Latin ) ; and that the Sanscrit Wisargah, or final /, is eguivalent to s.
In the application of the above terminations, the finals of the
crudes must first be rejected.
Thus, taking dega, and rejecting
the final, we have deo ; and adding the terminations, we have the
48. Mascaline Crudes in a, like देव, “ a deity" (deus).
The rest like the masculine dega. Observe, that Since the voc. dual and plural of the Sanscrit noun COincides with the nom., it will, in future, be omitted.
* When a feminine noun, like.jiod, is taken to form the last member of a compound adjective, it is declined like deoa for the masculine, and ddina for the nenter. Thus, taking the feminine noun oidya, “learning ;' from this is formed the compound alpatjidji, “ little learning:'' and when this is used as a compound adjective it becomes, in the nom. masc. fem. and neut., alpauidyah, alpaoidyā, alpatridyum, * p0SSessed of little learning.' On the same principle, a masculine noun takes the feminine and neuter terminations when forming the last member of a compound
adjective ; and a neuter noun, the maSculine and feminine.
To convince the student of the absolute necessity of studying attentively the declension of this first class of nouns, he is recommended to turn back to r. 38. He will there find given, under fifteen heads, the various forms of nouns, Substantive and adjective, which follow this declension. All the masculine substantives in this list are declined like depa ; all the feminine either like jācā or ?aadā ; all the neuter like dāma. Again, all the adjectives in this list follow the same three examples for their three genders. Again, according to depa masculine,.jica feminine, and dand neuter, are declined all regular comparative and superlative degrees of the form panyatara, pujiyatama (r. 71.); all irregular Superlatives of the form 0alightha (r. 7I.); all present participles of the forms Karcāna, kriyamāna (r. l24); all passive past participles of the form krita, &c., which are the most common and useful of all verbal derivatives (r. l25. 1. 2. 3. 4.) ; all indefinite future participles, which are of constant occurrence, of the forms kārya, karapāya, kartatya (r. l29.); all participles of the second future, of the form karishyamana (r. l30); many ordinals, like prathama (r. 14). Lastly, according to mada feminine, are also declined thefemā?????es of adjectives like tama (r. 40.); the feminines of innumerable adjectives
like dhanapat, dhāmat (r. 42.), dhanin, and medhārin (r. 43.) ; the .feminines of nouns of ageney like kārin (r. l8l..3); the feminines of nouns of ageney like kartri (r. l3l. 2.) ; the feminines of irregular comparative degrees like baliyas (r. m2. 60.*) ; the femā?tines of present participles like Karcat (r. l28. and 63.); the । feminines of active participles of the third preterite like Kritacat (r. l27. and 62.) ; the feminimes of active participles of the second preterite like cicidicas (r. l27. and 60.*) ; the feminimes of many ordinals like paichama (r. 74.) Hence it is evident, that although we have arranged Sanscrit nouns under eight classes, the last seven claSSes COntain but a small proportion of nouns and participles Compared with the almost innumerable number embraced by the first. The student, therefore, ought not to advance a step further in the Grammar till he has made himself thoroughly master of this declension. There are a few useful words (originally feminine, and not derived from masculines like mada and putri,ं in r. 88. xv.), such as श्री, “ prosperity,” भी, “ fear,” ह्री, “ shame,' which wary from the declension of नदी mad? ; thus, Sing. mom. श्री:, - acc. श्रियं, ins. श्रिया, dat. श्रिये or श्रियै, abl. and gen. श्रियः or प्रिया:, loc. श्रियि। or fश्रयां. So again, स्त्री, “a woman,” nom. sing. dual and plur. स्त्री, fस्त्रयौ, स्त्रिय:, acc. स्त्रियं or स्त्री', स्त्रियी, स्त्रिय: or स्त्री:, ins. स्त्रिया, स्त्रीभ्यां, स्त्रीभि:, dat. स्त्रियै, &c., abl. and gen. स्त्रियाः &c., loc. स्त्रियां &c, voc. स्त्रि &c. लप्ट्मो, “ fortune,” agrees with श्री &c. in making its nom. ठ्ष्मीः .