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By adding to NOUNS,
1. vat (nom. -vān, -vatī, -vat), if the crude end in a or a,* forming innumerable adjectives: as, from dhana, "wealth," dhanavat, "possessed of wealth.” This and the next affix are universally applicable, and are of the utmost utility to form adjectives of possession. Sometimes vat is added to crudes in s and t: as in tejaswat, vidyutwat (violating r. 26. 29. and 14.).
II. mat (nom.-mān, -matī, -mat), if the crude end in i, i, or u, to form adjectives like the preceding: as, from dhi, "wisdom," dhimat, "wise"; from anshu, a ray," anshumat, "radiant.”
43. SIXTH CLASS.-Crudes in an and in, Masculine, Feminine, and
Formed by adding to ROOTS,
1. man (nom. -ma), after Guna of the root, forming substantives of the neuter gender: as, from kṛi, "to do"; karman, “a deed." This affix corresponds to the Latin men, in regimen, stamen, &c. One or two nouns in man are masculine: as, ātman, "soul" (nom. -mā); and a few masculine nouns are formed with an instead of man : as, rājan, “a king” (nom. -jā), from rāj, “to shine." A few adjectives are formed with van: as, drishwan, “seeing” (nom. -vā, -vā, -va).
By adding to NOUNS,
11. iman (nom. -imā), forming masculine abstract substantives. If the noun ends in a or u, these vowels are rejected: as, from kāla, “black,” kāliman, “blackness"; from laghu, "light," laghiman, "lightness"; from mṛidu, "soft," mradiman.† If it end in a consonant, this consonant, with its preceding vowel, is rejected: as, from mahat, "great," mahiman, "greatness."
By adding to ROOTS,
111. in (nom. -i, -inī, -i), after Vriddhi of a final vowel and medial a, and Guna of
* Vat is not often found added to feminine crude forms. It occurs, however, occasionally ; as, कान्तावत्, “having a wife,” शिखावत्, “crested.”
† A medial ri before a simple consonant is changed to ra, but not before a double
consonant: as, from कृष्ण, “ black,” कृष्णिमन्, “ blackness.” This affix, iman, is generally added to adjectives, and the same changes take place before it, that take place before the affixes iyas and ishtha (see r. 71. †). Thus, gariman, preman, draghiman, bhuman, &c.
any other medial vowel, forming nouns of agency of three genders (r. 131. 3.): as, from kri, "to do,” kārin, “a doer."
By adding to NOUNS,
IV. in (nom. -, -ini, -i), forming innumerable adjectives of possession. The final of a crude is rejected before this affix: as, from dhana, "wealth," dhanin, "wealthy"; from mālā, 66 a garland,” mālin, “garlanded"; from vrihi, "rice,” vrīhin, “having
v. vin (nom. -vi, -vinī, -vi), if the crude end in a or as, forming a few adjectives: as, from medhā, "intellect," medhāvin, “intellectual"; from tejas, “splendour,” tejaswin, "splendid." This last example violates r. 26. and 29.
44. SEVENTH CLASS.-Crudes in as, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Formed by adding to ROOTS,
as (nom. -ah), after Guna, forming neuter substantives: as, from man, “to think,” "the mind"; from sri, "to go," saras, 66 water." But in vedhas, "Brahmā," and chandramas, "the moon," masc., and apsaras, "a nymph," fem., the nominative is -āh. In place of as, the neuter affixes is or us are occasionally added: as, from hu, "to offer," havis, "ghee"; from chaksh, "to speak," chakshus, "the eye."
45. EIGHTH CLASS.-Crudes in any Consonant, except t, d, n, s, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.
Any root may be
with another word.
Formed by using ROOTS as nouns of agency.
used to form a noun of agency, provided it be compounded Thus, from shak, "to be able," sarvashak, "omnipotent." Those roots which end in t or d, or in a short vowel, having t affixed, have been already noticed as falling under the fifth class. This eighth class is intended to comprise all other roots, ending in any consonant: as, bhuj (nom. bhuk); rāj (nom. ); prächchh (nom.); budh (nom. bhut); pur (nom. pūh); gir (nom. gth); div (nom. dyauh); sprish (nom. spṛik); vish (nom. viț); twish (nom. f); lih (nom. f¿¿); duh (nom. dhuk); pipaksh (nom. pipuk). two other nouns derived from roots falling under this class: as, ¿es, “thirsty” ( nom. तृष्णक्); ऋत्विज्, “a priest" ( nom. ऋत्विक्); वाच् f. “ speech” (nom. वाक्); असृज्, n. blood” (nom. असृक्).
There are also one or
46. There is no indefinite article in Sanscrit. Thus, а
man can only be expressed by the simple noun : purushah. The definite article is usually expressed by the pronoun sa, asy: sa purushah, "the man." The indefinite pronoun kashchit may be used like the English expression "a certain "; thus, कश्चित् पुरुषः a certain man."
As, in the last chapter, nouns substantive and adjective were arranged under eight classes, according to the final of their crudes (the first four classes comprising those ending in vowels, the last four those ending in consonants), so it will be the object of the present chapter to give the eight systems of declension arising out of this arrangement. Moreover, as every class of crudes comprised adjectives as well as substantives, so it is intended that the examples of a masculine, feminine, and neuter substantive, exhibited under each system of declension, shall serve as the model for the masculine, feminine, and neuter of adjectives coming under the same class.
The learner will have already gathered that the noun has three genders, and that the gender is, in many cases, determinable from the termination of the crude. Thus, all crudes in ā, ī, and those formed with the affix ti (r. 39.), are feminine: nearly all nouns whose crudes end in ana, twa, ya, tra, as, is, us, and man, are neuter; all in iman are masculine; but those in a, i, u, and ri, are not reducible to rule. The nominative case is, however, in the first of these instances a guide to the gender: as, devah,
* In modern Sanscrit eka is very commonly used as an indefinite article, as ekah purushah, "a man."
"a deity," is masculine; but dūnam, "a gift," neuter. And in other cases the meaning of the word: as, pitri, "a father," is masculine; and mātri, "a mother," feminine.
In Sanscrit, all the relations between the words in a sentence
are expressed by inflections. A great many prepositions exist in the language, but these are very rarely used alone in government with any case, their chief use being as prefixes to verbs and nouns. This absence of syntactical auxiliaries leads to the necessity for eight cases. These are called, 1. nominative; 2. accusative; 3. instrumental; 4. dative; 5. ablative; 6. genitive; 7. locative; 8. vocative. Of these, the third and seventh are The instrumental denotes generally
new to the classical student. the instrument by which a thing is done; as, tena kritam, “done by him." The locative generally refers to the place or time in which any thing is done; as, Ayodhyāyām “in Ayodhyā”; pūrvakāle, "in former time"; bhūmau, "on the ground." Hence it follows that the ablative is restricted to the sense from, and cannot be used, as in Latin and Greek, to express by, with, in, at, on, &c. The noun has three numbers, singular, dual, and plural.
SECT. I.-DECLENSION OF CRUDES ENDING IN VOWELS, OR OF THE FIRST FOUR CLASSES OF NOUNS.
FIRST CLASS.-CRUDES IN α, MASCULine and neUTER; IN ā and ī, FEMININE.
jīvā, fem. “life”;
nadi, fem. “a river"; and ¬ dāna, neuter, “a gift.”
47. By far the greatest number of masculine and neuter nouns, in Sanscrit, end in a in the crude form; and by far the greatest number of feminine nouns end in either ā or ī. These we have arranged under the first class, and the examples we are about to give will serve as the model, not only for substantives, but also
* Oвs. That these cases will sometimes be denoted by their initial letters. Thus, N. will denote nominative, I. instrumental.
Both these cases are used to denote various other relations. See the Chapter on Syntax.
for all the adjectives given at r. 38. as falling under this class. For all adjectives which make a in the crude form of the masculine and neuter make a or i in the feminine. Thus, taking the adjective sundara, “beautiful.” The masculine is declined like deva (nom. sundarah); the feminine like jīvā or nadī (nom. sundarā or sundarī); the neuter like dāna (nom. sundaram).
So great is the importance of this first class of nouns, that, to make its declension clearer, it will be advisable to give, in the first place, the following general scheme of its terminations.
The classical student will recognise in this scheme many resemblances to the terminations of nouns in Latin and Greek, when it is remembered that the Sanscrit a corresponds to the Latin u and the Greek o; the Sanscrit m to the Latin m and the Greek; the Sanscirtā or to the Latin a and the Geek 7, or ɛla, or a, or in the gen. plur. o; the Sanscrit bh or bhy to the Latin b; and that the Sanscrit Visargah, or final h, is equivalent to s.