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39. SECOND CLASS.-Crudes in i, IMasculime, Femimime, amd Neuter. Formed by adding to ROOTs,
r. i, forming, Ist (nom. -ih), a few masculine Substantives, often not connected with their roots either in form or Sense : as, from umrk, “ to mark”, ggmi, “ fire.” When this affix is added to the root dhi, क is dropped, and various prepositions are prefixed ; as gandhi, oidhi, midhi.
Forming, 2dly (nom. -i), one or two neuter Substantives : as, from ori, “ to surround ”; oari, ** water.”
Forming, 8dly (nom. -ih,-ih,-i), a few adjectives : as, from shuch, “ to be pure ”; &huchi, “ pure.” _ "
m. ऽti (nom. -tih), forming an useful class of abstract Substantives feminine. This affix bears a great analogy to the passive participle (r. I25.). The same changes of the root are reguired before it as before this participle ; and, in fact, prowided the passive participle does not insert i, this substantive may always be formed from it, by changing ta into ti. But if i is inserted before ta, no such Substantive can be formed. Thus, from oach, “ to speak,'' ukta, * Spoken,” tuktā, * Speech "; from mam, “ to imagine,” mata, “ imagined,” mati, * the mind.” And where ma is Substituted for ta of the passive participle, mi is Substituted for ti ; as, from glai, “ to be weary,' glima, “ wearied,'' glimi, “ weariness.' This affix corresponds to the tio of the Latin, added, in the same way, to passive participles :
as actus, acti0.
40. THIRD CLASS.– Crudes im u, Masculime, Feminine, and Neuter.
Formed by adding to RooTS,
r. ma, forming, Ist (nom. -uh), often with considerable change of the root, a few
41. FoURTH CLAss.–Crudes in tri (तृ), Masculine, Feminine, and IVeuter. Formed by adding to RooTs,
_tri, forming Ist (nom. -ta, -tri, -tri), nouns .of agency of three genders, the same change of the root being reguired which takes place in the first futuro (r. 181. 2.). Thus, from kship, “ to throw,” ksheptri, “ a thrower; from da, *toogive,”,aātri, *a giver.” This corresponds to the Latin affix tor. _
Forming 2dly (nom. -ta), a few nouns of relationship, masculine and feminine :
42. FIFTH CLASS.-Crudes in t and d, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.
Formed by adding to Roors,
* (nom--', in all genders), if the root end in a ahort ooapag: forming nouns of agency of three genders: as, from kri, “ to do,” krit, “a doer"; from ji, *to conguer,".jit, “ a congueror.” This class of nouns are never used, except as the last member of a compound: thus, kurmakrit, “ a doer of work.” Roots already ending in t or d, taken to form nouns of agency, fall under this class: as, from trid, “ to know,"dharmauid, “*one who knows his duty-T There are also afew nouns falling under this class, formed by prefixing prepositions to roots ending in t or d : as, from dyut, “ to shine,” uidyut, “lightning”; from pad, “ to go,"sumpad, **success.
By adding to NOUNS,
I. out (nom. -tam, -bati, -bat), if the crude end in a or ā,* forming innumerable adjectives : as, from dhama, ‘* wealth," dhamabat, “ possessed of wealth.” This and the next affix are universally applicable, and are of the utmost utility to form adjectives of p0SSession. Sometimes oat is added to crudes in s and ८: as in tejastoat, oidyutulat (violating r. 26. 29. and 14.).
II. mat (nom.-mam, -mati, -mat), if the crude end in i, ?, or u, to form adjectives like the preceding : as, from dhi, “ wisdom,” dhāmat, ** wise”; from amshu, ‘*a ray,” umshumat, ** radiant.''
43. SIxTH CLASS.-Crudes im an and in, IMasculime, Feminime, and Neuter.
Formed by adding to R00TS, r. mam (nom. -ma), after Guna of the root, forming Substantives of the neuter gender: as, from kri, “ to do"; karmam, “a deed.” This affix corresponds to the Latin mem, in regimem, stamem, &c. One or two nouns in mam are masculine : as, ātmam, “ soul” (nom. -mā) ; and a few masculine nouns are formed with am instead of mam : as, rājam, **a king” (nom. -ja), from rāj, “ to shine.' A few adjectives are formed with oam s as, drishuium, ** Seeing' (nom. -ba, -Ua, -ba). By adding to NOUNS, II. imam (nom. -imā), forming masculine abstract SubstantiveS. If the noun ends in d or u, these wowels are rejected : as, from kāla, “ black,” kalimam, “blackness''; from laghu, “ light,' laghimam, “ lightneSS'; from mridu, “ Soft,'' maradimam.f If it end in a consonant, this consonant, with its preceding vowel, is rejected : as, from mahat, “ great,' mahimam, “ greatnesS.'' By adding to R00TS, III. in (nom. -ः, -imi, -i), after Wriddhi of a final wowel and medial a, and Guna of
* Wat is not often found added to feminine crude formS. It occurS, howewer, occasionally; as, कान्तावत् , “having a wife," शिखावत् , **crested.”
f A medial ri before a Simple consonant is changed to ra, but not before a double consonant : as, from कृष्ण, **black,” कृष्णिमन् , “ blackneSS.' This affix, imum, is generally added to adjectioes, and the Same changes take place before it, that take place before the affixes iyus and islatha (See r. 71. f). Thus, gurinaam, premam, drighimam, bhāmam, &c.
toin, “ Splendid.' This last example violates r. 26. and 29.
45. EIGHTH CLASS.-Crudes in any Consonant, except t, d, n, S, Musculine, Femimime, dmd Neuter.
40. There is no indefinite article in Sanscrit.* Thus, “ a man' can only be expressed by the simple noun पुरूष: puracsha/. The definite article is usually expressed by the pronoun sa, as स पुरुप: sa purasha/, “ the man." The indefinite pronoun कश्चित् kas/chit may be used like the English expression " a certain ';
As, in the last chapter, nouns substantive and adjective were arranged under eight classes, according to the final of their crudes (the first four classes comprising those ending in vowels, the last four those ending in consonants), so it will be the object of the present chapter to give the eight systems of declension arising out of this arrangement. Moreover, as every class of crudes Comprised adjectives as well as substantives, SO it is intended that the examples of a masculine, feminine, and neuter Substantive, exhibited under each system of declension, shall serve as the model for the masculine, feminine, and neuter of adjectives coming under the same class.
The learner will have already gathered that the noun has three genders, and that the gender is, in many cases, determinable from the termination of the crude. Thus, all crudes in a, ?, and those formed with the affix ti (r. 39.), are feminine : nearly all nouns whose crudes end in ama, tiod, /a, tra, as, is, us, and 222८?a, are neuter ; all in imam are masculine ; but those in a, i, १८, and ri, are not reducible to rule. The nominative case is, however, in the first of these instances a guide to the gender : as, deoa/),
* In modern Sanscrit cka is very commonly used as an indefinite article, as rkal puruslial, “a man."