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FORMATION OF THE CRUDES OF SIMPLE NOUNS.
37. Nouns substantive and adjective are of two kinds, simple and compound. Simple nouns are those which stand alone, and uncompounded with any other. Compound, are those made up of two or more nouns, the last only receiving inflection."
It may be easily understood, from the preceding remarks, that the consideration of simple nouns divides itself into two heads: 1st, The formation of their crudes; 2dly, The formation of their cases; or, in other words, the enumeration of the different systems of declension which belong to each variety of crude form.
Observe, that it is not intended that the student should dwell long, at first, on the following pages, printed in small type. It will be essential for him, however, to read them over with attention, as a necessary introduction to the subject of declension in Chapter IV. Their importance will not be fully appreciated till he arrives at a more advanced period of his studies.
The crudes of nouns are formed in two ways, either by adding certain affixes to the ROOT, the vowel of which is liable, at the same time, to be changed to its Guna or Vriddhi substitute, or by adding certain affixes to CRUDES OF NOUNS already formed. It must be remembered, however, that, although every single word in the Sanscrit language is derived from some root, there are many in which the connection between the noun and its source, either in sense or form, is by no means obvious.† With the derivation of all such we shall not concern ourselves; and the following rules have only reference to those classes of nouns whose formation proceeds on clear and intelligible principles.
38. FIRST CLASS.-Crudes in a, Masculine and Neuter; in a and ī, Feminine.
1. a, forming, 1st (nom. -ah), after the Vriddhi of medial a of a root, and the Guna of any other vowel, a large class of substantives masculine; as, from the root div, "to sport," deva, "a deity." If a root end in ch or j, these letters
* Compound nouns are treated of in Chapter IX. on Compound Words.
† Thus, yч, “a man,” is said to come from pur, to precede"; shrigala,
a jackal," from srij, "to create"; shiva, "the god Shiva," from shi, "to sleep."
are changed to k and g respectively: as, from pach, "to cook," pūka, "cooking "; from yuj, "to join," yoga, "joining."
Forming, 2dly (nom. masc. -ah, fem. -ū, neut. -am*), after Guna of a final, and sometimes Guna of a medial vowel, nouns of agency: as, from plu, "to swim," plava, “what swims"; from srip, "to creep," sarpa, "what creeps" (see r. 131. 1.).
Forming, 3dly (nom. -ah -ā -am), adjectives: as, from shubh, "to shine,” shubha, "beautiful." Sometimes there is great change of the root: as in shiva, "propitious," sundara, "beautiful; and sometimes the feminine may be formed in : as, sundari. There are very few adjectives formed with this affix.
11. aka (nom. -akah, -akā or -ikā, -akam), after Vriddhi of a final vowel or medial a, and Guna of any other vowel. Still more common than a to form adjectives and nouns of agency: as, from tap, "to burn," tāpaka, “inflammatory"; from kri, “to do,” kāraka, “a doer” (r. 131.3.b.); Овs. -akā is the feminine of the adjectives, and -ikā of the agents: as, tāpakā, kārikā.
III. ana (nom. -anam), after Guna of the root, forming, 1st, a large class of neuter substantives: as, from ni, "to guide," nayana, "guidance"; from dā, "to give," dāna, "a gift."
Forming, 2dly (nom. -anah, -anā, -anam), nouns of agency and adjectives: as, from nyit, "to dance,” nartana, a dancer" (r. 131. 3. c.); from shubh, "to shine," shobhana, "bright." The feminine of the agents may be in anī.
Iv. tra (nom. -tram), after Guna of the root: as, from pū, "to drink,” pātra, "a vessel"; from shru, "to hear," shrotra," the organ of hearing." This affix is used to form neuter nouns denoting some instrument or organ, and corresponds to the Latin trum in aratrum, plectrum, &c.
v. There are other uncommon affixes to roots to form adjectives in a (nom. -ah, -ā, -am): as, ala, vara, ra, ura, ira, uka, tra, ma, ūka. The following are examples of adjectives formed with these affixes; chapala, jitwara, namra, bhidura, ruchira, varshuka, chitra, bhima, jāgarūka.
Formed by adding to NOUNS,
VI. twa (nom. -twam), forming neuter abstract substantives from any noun in the language: as, from purusha, a man," purushatwa, manliness." In adding this affix to crudes ending in nasals, the nasal is rejected: as, from dhanin, "rich," dhanitwa, “the state of being rich."
* OBS. When there are three genders, it will be sufficient, in future, to place the hyphen between them,
VII. ya, forming, 1st (nom. -yam), neuter abstract substantives and a few collectives, the first syllable of the noun taking Vriddhi: as, from suhrid, “a friend,” sauhṛidya, “friendship." When the crude ends in a vowel, this vowel is rejected before ya is affixed: as, from vichitra, "various," vaichitrya, "variety."
Forming, 2dly (nom. -ya, -yā, -yam), adjectives expressing some relationship to the noun: as, from dhana, "wealth," dhanya, "wealthy." Sometimes Vriddhi takes place: as, from soma, the moon," saumya, "lunar." In this case the fem. is -yī. vIII. a (nom. -ah, -ī, -am), after Vṛiddhi of the first syllable of the noun, forming innumerable adjectives expressing some relationship to the noun. When the crude ends in a, no further affix is required, and the only change is the Vriddhi of the first syllable: as, from purusha, a man," paurusha, "manly." When in ā or i, this ā or i must be rejected: as, from sikatā, "sand,” saikata, "sandy." When in u, this u is changed to av before this and the three following affixes : as, from Vishnu, "the god Vishnu," Vaishnava, "a worshipper of Vishnu."
Sometimes the neuter form of this adjective is taken as an abstract substantive : as, nominative case, pauruṣham, “manliness"; or, as a collective: as, kshaitram, "fields," collectively, from kshetra. This applies to the two next affixes.
IX. ika (nom. -ikah, -ikī, -ikam), after Vriddhi of the first syllable of the noun, forming numerous adjectives. Before this affix is added, the final vowel of the crude must be rejected: as, from dharma, “religion,” dharmika, "religious."
x. eya (nom. -eyah, -eyî, -eyam), after Vriddhi of the first syllable of the noun, forming many adjectives. The final vowel of the crude must be rejected: as, from purusha, "a man," pauruṣheya, "manly"; from agni, "fire," agneya, “fiery."
XI. iya (nom. -iyah, -īyā, -îyam), without any change of the noun, except the rejection of final a: as, from parvata, a mountain,” parvatiya, "mountainous.” Sometimes there is Vriddhi: as, from sukha, "pleasure," saukhiya, "pleasurable." When the final of the crude remains, k is prefixed to the last two affixes.
XII. There are other uncommon affixes to nouns forming adjectives in a (nom. -ah, -ā, -am): as, īna, vala, tana; forming, from grūma, "a village," grāmīna, “rustic"; from shikhā, “a crest,” shikhāvala, “crested"; from shwas, “to-morrow," shwastana, “future." This last corresponds to the Latin tinus, and has reference to time. Ka is sometimes added to words to form adjectives and collective nouns, and is often redundant. Maya (nom. -mayah, -mayī, -mayam) is a common affix added to any word to denote made of: as, from loha, “iron," lohamaya, “made of iron”; from tejas, “light," tejomaya," consisting of light," "full of light."
By adding to ROOTS,
XIII. ā (nom. -ā), with no change of the root, forming feminine substantives: as,
from jiv, "to live,” jīva, “life.” This affix is frequently added to the desiderative form of a root: as, from pipās, "to desire to drink," pipāsā, "thirst"; and rarely to the intensive: as, from loluy," to cut much," lolūyā, "cutting much.”
By adding to Nouns,
xiv. tā (nom. -tā), forming feminine abstract substantives: as, from purusha, a man,” puruṣhatā, "manliness." This affix may be added to any noun in the language, and corresponds to the Latin tas in celeritas, &c.
xv. i (nom. -i), forming a large class of feminine substantives, usually derived from masculines in a, by changing a to : as, from nada, “a river,” fem. nadī; from putra, "a son," fem. putri; from nartaka, " a dancer," fem. nartaki.
39. SECOND CLASS.-Crudes in i, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Formed by adding to ROOTS,
1. i, forming, 1st (nom. -ih), a few masculine substantives, often not connected with their roots either in form or sense: as, from ank, “to mark”, agni, “fire.” When this affix is added to the root dhā, ā is dropped, and various prepositions are prefixed; as sandhi, vidhi, nidhi.
Forming, 2dly (nom. -i), one or two neuter substantives: as, from vṛi, “to surround"; vāri, "water."
Forming, 3dly (nom. -ih, -ih, -i), a few adjectives: as, from shuch, "to be pure"; shuchi, "pure."
But if i is inserted before ta, no such
II. ti (nom. -tih), forming an useful class of abstract substantives feminine. This affix bears a great analogy to the passive participle (r. 125.). The same changes of the root are required before it as before this participle; and, in fact, provided the passive participle does not insert i, this substantive may always be formed from it, by changing ta into ti. substantive can be formed. Thus, from vach, "to speak," ukta, "spoken," ukti, "speech"; from man, "to imagine," mata, "imagined,” mati, “the mind.” And where na is substituted for ta of the passive participle, ni is substituted for ti ; as, from glai, "to be weary," glana, "wearied,” glāni, "weariness." This affix corresponds to the tio of the Latin, added, in the same way, to passive participles : as actus, actio.
40. THIRD CLASS.-Crudes in u, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.
Formed by adding to ROOTS,
1. u, forming, 1st (nom. -uh), often with considerable change of the root, a few
substantives of the masculine, and one or two of the feminine gender: as, from
bhā, “to shine,” bhānu, m. the sun"; from dhe, "to drink," dhenu, f. " Forming, 2dly (nom. -u), one or two neuter substantives: as, madhu, "honey.” Forming, 3dly (nom. -uh-uh or -vi-u), a few adjectives: as, from tan, "to stretch," tanu, "thin" (fem. tanuh or tanwi). This affix is often added to desiderative roots to form adjectives: as, from pipās, "to desire to drink," pipāsu, "thirsty.”
II. ishnu (nom. -ishnuh, -ishnuh, -ishnu), with Guna of the root, forming adjectives: as, from kshi, "to perish,” kshayishnu, “perishing."
III. There are many other affixes to roots, forming nouns in u (nom. -uh, -uh, -u) : as, ru, nu, ālu, snu, āru, itnu, tu. The following adjectives afford examples of these affixes: bhīru, trasnu, shayālu, sthāsnu, sharāru, gadayitnu; and the substantive gantu.
41. FOURTH CLASS.-Crudes in tri (), Masculine, Feminine, and
Formed by adding to ROOTS,
tri, forming 1st (nom. -tā, -trī, -tṛi), nouns of agency of three genders, the same change of the root being required which takes place in the first future (r. 131. 2.). Thus, from kship, "to throw," ksheptri, "a thrower; from da, "to give," datṛi, a giver." This corresponds to the Latin affix tor.
Forming 2dly (nom. -tā), a few nouns of relationship, masculine and feminine : as, pitri, “a father," mātri, "a mother.”
42. FIFTH CLASS.-Crudes in t and d, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.
Formed by adding to ROOTS,
t (nom. -t, in all genders), if the root end in a short vowel: forming nouns of agency of three genders: as, from kri, "to do," krit, "a doer"; from ji, "to conquer," jit, a conqueror." This class of nouns are never used, except as the last member of a compound: thus, karmakṛit, "a doer of work." Roots already ending in t or d, taken to form nouns of agency, fall under this class: as, from vid, "to know," dharmavid, "one who knows his duty." There are also a few nouns falling under this class, formed by prefixing prepositions to roots ending in tord: as, from dyut, "to shine,” vidyut, “lightning"; from pad, "to go,” sampad, “success.