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* It will be convenient, in the following pages, to express the idea contained in the root by prefixing to it the infinitive sign to. But the Student must not suppose
.that the Sound budh denotes any thing more than the mere ided of “ knowing''; mor
must he imagine that in deriving nouns from it, we are deriving them from the infinitive, or from any part of the verb, but rather from a Simple original Sound, a mere imaginary word, which is the common Source of both nouns and verbs.
f This state of the noun will, in the following pages, be called the crude.
numerals, and participles. Thus, Godha, bodhana, tad, parichan, ८//acad, are the crudes of the nominative cases bodha/, bodhanam, sa/), paiicha, Dhagan, respectively. The student should endeavour to understand, at the outset, the meaning and use of this crude form. It is an intermediate state between the root and nominative case, the naked form of the noun, which serves as the basis on which to construct its eight cases, beginning with the nominative. In a Greek or Latin dictionary we look for the noun under the nominative case, but in Sanscrit we look for it under its crude state ; as, for example, sah, “he,' is found under tad. And here let it be distinctly understood, that the orude form of a noun is very far from having a mere ideal existence, like the root. It is of the utmost practical utility. It is that form of the noun which is always used in the formation of compound words ; and as every Sanscrit sentence contains, perhaps, more compound words than simple ones, it may with truth be said, that the crude state of the noun is not only that form under which it appears in the dictionary, but is also the most usual form under which it appears in books.
We may conceive it guite possible that Greek and Latin grammarians might have proceeded on a Similar plan, and that they might have Supposed a root ?\ey, from which was drawn out the nouns A68ts, ?\e5tkos, Aekrāg, Korrot?\oy), āAAoyog, and the verbs ?\6ryoo, korroं?\6yo, 6?\\ory6o: So also, a root og, from which was derived the nouns dgmen, actio, dctus ; and the verbs ago, perago : or a root moru, from which would come mauta, nauis, nauticus, natpalis, mauigo. Again, they might have Supposed a crude form to each of these nouns, as well as a root; as, for instaince, ?\egtko of Ae8akāc, and maui of nauis ; and they might have reguired the student to look for the noun macis under mati, and the verb mauigo under mau. Further than this, they might have shewn that this crude form was the form used in the formation of compound words, as in Ae8akoypंpos, motiger. But Greek and Latin are too uncertain in their construction to admit; of Such a method of arrangement being extensively applied : Such, however, is the artificial character of the Sanscrit language, that here it has been done throughout with great regularity and preCIS1OI1_
SANSCRIT ROOTS, AND THE CRUDE FORM OF NOUNS. 2I
PORMATION OR THE CR.UIDES OR SIMPLE NOUNS.
37. Nouns substantive and adjective are of two kinds, Simple and compound. Simple nouns are those which stand alone, and uncompounded with any other. Compoumd, are those made up of two or more nouns, the last only receiving inflection.*
It may be easily understood, from the preceding remarks, that the consideration of simple nouns divides itself into two heads : Ist, The formation of their crudes ; 2dly, The formation of their cases ; Or, in other words, the enumeration of the different systems of declension which belong to each variety of crude form.
Observe, that it is not intended that the student should dwell long, at first, on the following pages, printed in small type. It will be essential for him, however, to read them over with attention, as a necessary introduction to the subject of declension in Chapter IW. Their importance will not be fully appreciated till he arrives at a more advanced period of his studies.
The crudes of nouns are formed in two ways, either by adding certain affixes to the R00T, the wowel of which is liable, at the same time, to be changed to its Guna or Wriddhi Substitute, or by adding certain affixes to oRumEs or NOUNS already formed. It must be remembered, however, that, although every Single word in the Sanscrit language is derived from some root, there are many in which the connection between the noun and its source, either in sense or form, is by no means obwious.f With the derivation of all Such we Shall not concern ourselves ; and the following rules have only reference to th0se classes of nouns whose
formation proceeds on clear and intelligible principles.
38. FIRST CLAss.– Crudes in a, IMasculine and Neuter ; in a and ?, Femimime.
Formed by adding to R00Ts– J. d, forming, Ist (nom. -al), after the Wriddhi of medial a of a r00t, and the Guna of any other vowel, a large class of substantives masculine : as, from the
root dio, * to sport,” deua, “ a deity.” If a root end in ch or .j, these letters
* Compound nouns are treated of in Chapter Ix. on Compound Words. f Thus, पुरूषः, *a man,” is Said to come from pur, “ to precede "; shrigala,
**a jackal,” from srij, “ to create”; shioa, “ the god Shiva,” from shi, “ to sleep.”
–_- “ - ' -- -े---'- `
dhamitupa, “ the state of being rich.”
* OBS. When there are three genders, it will be Sufficiont, in future, to place
the hyphen between them.
SANSCRIT ROOTS, AND THE CRUDB FORM OR NOUNS. 23
vm..yn, forming, Ist (nom. -9am), neuter abstract substantives and a few collectives, the first syllable of the noun taking vriddhiः as, from suhrid, “a friend,” sauhridya, “ friendship.” When the crude ends in a vowel, this vowel is rejected before ga is affixed : as, from gichitra, “ various,' oaichitrya, “ variety.” Forming, 2dly (nom.-9a,-yā,-9am),adjectives expressing some relationship to the noun : as, from dhama, “ wealth,” dhamga, “ wealthy.” Sometimes Wriddhi takes place : as, from soma, “ the moon,” 8aumya, **lunar.” In this case the fem. is -yi. vm. a (nom.-ah,-ः,-am), after Wriddhi of the first syllable of the noun, forming innumerable adjectives expressing some relationship to the noun. When the crude ends in a, no further affix is reguired, and the only change is the Wriddhi of the first syllable : as, from purugha, “ a man,” paurugha, “ manly.” When in ā or i, this a or i must be rejected : as, from sikata, ** Sand,' 8aikatu, ** Sandy.” When in a, this u is changed to au before this and the three following affixes : as, from Wiohnu, “ the god Wishnu,” Waighnada, “ a worshipper of Wishnu.” Sometimes the neuter form of this adjective is taken as an abstract substantive : as, nominative case, puurughum, “ manliness '; Or, as a collective : as, kshaitram, **fields,” collectively, from kshetra. This applies to the two next affixes. rx. ika (nom. -ikah, -ikā, -ikam), after Wriddhi of the first syllable of the noun, forming numerous adjectives. Before this affix is added, the final wowel of the crude must be rejected : as, from dharma, “ religion,” dhārmika, “ religious.” x. e)a (nom. -eyah, -6.ji, -eyum), after Wriddhi of the first syllable of the noun, forming Imany adjectives. The final wowel of the crude must be rejected: as, from purugha, “ a man,” paurushe/a, “ manly "; from dgmi, “ fire,” āgmega, “fiery.” xI. ।।ja (nom. -1/ah, -1/ā, -1/um), without any change of the noun, except the rejection of final a : as, from purouta, **a mountain,'' parbatiya, “ mountainous.” Sometimes there is Wriddhi : as, from sukha, “ pleasure,” samukhāya, **pleasurable.” When the final of the crude remains, k is prefixed to the last two affixes. xII. There are other uncommon affixes to nouns forming adjectives in a (nom. -dh, -ā, -am) : aS, ?na, Uala, tand ; forming, from grtima, ‘*a village,' gramima, “ rustic''; from shikha, “a crest,'' shikhaoala, “ crested'; from shtgas, “ t0-morrow,'' &hurastama, “ future.' This last correSponds to the Latin timus, and has reference to time-- Ka is Sometimes added to words to form adjectives and collective nouns, ” and is often redundant. Maya (nom. -mag/ah, -magi, -magyam) is a common affix added to any word to denote made of': as, from Joha, “ iron,” lohamag/u, “ made of iron ''; from tejus, “ light,'' tejomaga, “ consisting of light,” “ full of light.'' By adding t0 It00TS, xurं (nom. -ā), with n0 change of the r00t, forming feminine substantives: as,