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oN THE UsE oF इति wITH THE RFora onarro.
219. All the languages of the East are averse to the use of the obligua oratio. In Sanscrit it is never admitted, and when any one relates the words or describes the sentiments or thoughts of another, the relator invariably represents him as speaking the actual words in his own person. In such cases the particle इति (properly meaning “ so,” “ thus,') is often placed after the words ५uoted, and may be regarded as serving the purpose of inverted Commas ; thus, शिष्पा ऊषुः कृतकृत्या वयम् इति, the pupils said, “ we have accomplished our object,' not according to the English or Latin idiom, “ the pupils said that they had accomplished their object." So also कलहक्ारी इति ब्रूते भर्त्रा, your husband calls you “ guarrelsome,". where कलहकारी is in the nominative case, as being the actual word supposed to be spoken by the husband himself in his own person. So again युष्मान् विश्वासभूमय इति सर्व्वे पक्षिणो मम स्रये प्रस्तुवन्ति, all the birds praise you in my presence, Saying, “ he is an object of confidence," where the particle इति is eguivalent to “ saying,' and the word विश्वासभूमयः is not in the accusative, to agree with युष्मान्, as might be expected, but in the nominative, as being the actual word supposed to be uttered by the birds in their own persons. In some cases, however, the accusative is retained before इति; as, in the following example from Manu : अई बालम् इत्य् आाहुः, they call an ignorant man “ child.” But in the latter part of the Same line it passes into a nominative ; aS, पितेत्य् एव तु मन्त्रर्द, but (they call) a teacher of scripture “ father.' II. l53.
a. The use of इति is by no means restricted to the guotation of the words spoken by another. It often has reference merely to what is passing in the mind either of another person or of one's self When so employed, it is usually joined with the indeclinable participle, or of some other part of a verb, Signifying, “ to think,'' “ Suppose," &c., and may be translated by the English conjunction tha/, to which, in fact, it may be regarded as eguivalent ; thus, मकैटो घण्टां वादयति इति परिज्ञाय, “ having ascertained that it is a monkey who rings the bell "; पुनर् अथै:वृद्धिः करणीया इति मतिर् बभूव, “ his idea was that an increase of wealth ought again. to be made '; धन्यो-र्ह यस्य एतादृशी भार्ययेा इति मनसि निधाय, “ reflecting in his mind that I am
220. The following two stories, taken from the 4th Book of the Hitopadesha, will conclude the chapter on Syntax. A literal translation is given to both stories, and to the first a grammatical analysis is Subjoined. All the rules of combination are Observed, but the words are separated from each other, contrary to the usual practice of the Hindtis. In the two cases where such separation is impossible, viZ. where a final and initial vowel blend together into one Sound, and where crude words are joined with others to form Compounds, a dot placed underneath marks the division :
I. अस्ति गौतमस्य मुनेस् तपोवने महातपा नाम मुनि:, “ There is in the sacred grove of the sage Gautama a holy-sage named Mahātapāh। (Great-devotion).''
2. तेनाश्रमसन्निधाने मूषिकशावकः काकमुखाद् भ्रष्टो दृष्ट:, “ By him, in the meighbourhood of his hermitage, a young mouse, fallen from the beak of a crow, was seen.'
3. ततो दयायुक्तेन तेन मुनिना नीवाएकणैः संवडैित:, “ Then by that sage, touched with compassion, with grains of wild rice it was reared."
4. तदृनन्तरं मूषिकं खादितुम् अनुधावन् विडालो मुनिना दृष्ट:, “ Soon after this, a cat was observed by the sage running after the mouse to devour it.'
5. तं मूषिकं भीतम् स्रालोक्य तपःप्रभावात् तेन मुनिना मूषिको बलिष्ठो विडाल: कृत:, “ Perceiving the mouse terrified, by that sage, through the efficacy of his devotion, the mouse was changed into a very strong cat.''
Second sentence.-Tema, “ by him," instr. case of the pronoun tat, p. 5L. r. 77. Ashramasammidhāne, “ in the neighbourhood of his hermitage” genitively dependent compound, p. 161., the first member formed by the crude noum āshrama, “ hermitage'; the last member by the loc. case of sammidhāna, “ neighbourhood,' noun of the first class, neut. (p. 82.). The initial a of this word blends with the final of
tema into a, by r. 4. p. 7. Minghikashāpakah, “ a young mouse," or “ the young of a mouse,” genitively dependent oompound, p. 161., the first member formed by the crude noun mighika, “a mouse "; the last, by the nom. case of shāpaka, ** the young of any animal," noun of the first class (p. 81.). Wis. remains hy r. 24. a. JKakcmukhād, “ from the beak (or mouth) of a crow,” genitively dependent compound, p. 161. ; the first member, formed by the crude noun kāka, *a crow "; the last, by the abl. case of mukha, ** mouth,” noun of the first class, neut. (p. 82.), # being changed to d by r.14. p. l1. Brashto, “ fallen,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the pasS. past part. of the r00t bhramsh, p. 140. m. ; ah changed to o by r. 20. a. , Drishtah, “ seen,' nom. case, Sing. masc. of the pass. past part. of the root drish (दृशं) p. 189. i. Wis. remains by r. 24. b. Third Sentence.-Tato, “ then,” adv. p. 152. a. ; as changed to o by r. 29. and 26. a. JDayāyuktema, “ touched with compassion," instrumentally dependent compound, p. 160. ; the first member formed by the crude noun daya, “ compassion ''; the last, hy the instr. case of yukta, “ endowed with," pass. past part. of the root ygj, p. 189. i. Tema, see second sentence. Muminā, “ by the sage,' noun of the second class, masc. gend. instr. case (p. 88.). Vioarahamaih, “ with grains of wild rice,' genitively dependent compound, p. 16I. ; the first member formed by the crude noum mācāra, “ wild rice'; the Second, by the instr. plur. of kama, noun of the first class, masc. Wis. remains by r. 24. ८. Samparddhitah, “ reared," nom. case, Sing. of the pass. past part. of the causal form of the root oridh, p. 141. Wis. remains by r. 24. b. Fourth sentence.-1adamantaram, “ soon after this,” compound adverb, the first momber formed with the pronoun tat, “ this '; the Second by the adwerb dmantaram, “after.' Mishikam, noun of the first class, masc. gend., acc. case (p. 81.). Khaditum, ** to eat,'' infinitive mood of the root khād, p. 85. r. 106. and r. 200. Anudhāpam, * pursuing after,' “ running after,' nom. case, Sing. masc. of the pres. part. paras. of the root dhāt', “ to run,'' with the preposition amu, *after,' p. 186. b. Widāl0, ‘*a cat,' noun of the first claSS, masc. (p. 81.), nom. case ; ah changed to 0 by r. 20. ८. Mumina, see third sentence. Drishtah, see second sentence. Fifth sentence.-Tam, acc. case of the pronoun tat (p. 51.), used as a definite article, p. 28. r. 46. Mighikam, see fourth sentence. Bhātam, “ terrified,” acc. case, Sing. masc. of the pass. past part. of the root bhā, p. 188. h. Alokya, “ per