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before इति in this sense; as, मृतम् इति मत्वा, “ thinking that he was dead." In all these examples the use of f indicates that a quotation is made of the thoughts of the person at the time when the event took place.

b. Not unfrequently the participle "thinking," "supposing," &c. is omitted altogether, and f itself involves the sense of such a participle ; as, बालोऽपि न अवमन्तव्यो मनुष्य इति भूमिपः, “ a king even though a child is not to be despised, saying to one's self he is a mortal"; सौहार्द्दाद् वा विधुर इति वा मय्य् अनुक्रोशात्, “ either through affection or through compassion towards me, saying to yourself what a wretched man he is."

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION AND PARSING.

220. The following two stories, taken from the 4th Book of the Hitopadesha, will conclude the chapter on Syntax. A literal translation is given to both stories, and to the first a grammatical analysis is subjoined. All the rules of combination are observed, but the words are separated from each other, contrary to the usual practice of the Hindus. In the two cases where such separation is impossible, viz. where a final and initial vowel blend together into one sound, and where crude words are joined with others to form compounds, a dot placed underneath marks the division:

1. अस्ति गौतमस्य मुनेस् तपोवने महातपा नाम मुनिः, “ There is in the sacred grove of the sage Gautama a holy-sage named Mahātapāh (Great-devotion)."

2. तेनाश्रमसन्निधाने मूषिकशावकः काकमुखाद् भ्रष्टो दृष्टः, " By him, in the neighbourhood of his hermitage, a young mouse, fallen from the beak of a crow, was seen."

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3. ततो दयायुक्तेन तेन मुनिना नीवार कणैः संवर्द्धितः, “ Then by that sage, touched with compassion, with grains of wild rice it was reared."

4. तदनन्तरं मूषिकं खादितुम् अनुधावन् विडालो मुनिना दृष्टः, “Soon after this, a cat was observed by the sage running after the mouse to devour it."

5. तं मूषिकं भीतम् आलोक्य तपःप्रभावात् तेन मुनिना मूषिको बलिष्ठो विडालः ,"Perceiving the mouse terrified, by that sage, through the efficacy of his devotion, the mouse was changed into a very strong cat."

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6. स विडाल : कुकुराट् बिभेति । ततः कुक्कुरः कृतः । कुक्कुरस्य व्याघ्रान् महद् भयं । तदुनन्तरं स व्याघ्रः कृतः, “ The cat fears the dog. Upon that it was changed into a dog. Great is the dread of the dog for a tiger; then it was transformed into a tiger."

7. अथ व्याघ्रम् अपि मूषिक निर्विशेषं पश्यति मुनि: " Now the sage regards even the tiger as not differing at all from the mouse.'

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8. अतः सर्व्वे तत्रस्था जनास्तं व्याघ्रं दृष्ट्वा वदन्ति, “ Then all the persons residing in the neighbourhood, seeing the tiger, say.”

9. अनेन मुनिना मूषिकोऽयं व्याघ्रतां नीतः, ‘By this holy-sage this mouse has been brought to the condition of a tiger,'

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10. एतच्छ्रुत्वा स व्याघ्रः सव्यथोऽचिन्तयत्, “ The tiger overhearing this, being uneasy, reflected.”

11. यावद् अनेन मुनिना जीवितव्यं तावद् इदं मम स्वरूपाख्यानम् अकीर्त्तिकरं न чf, “As long as it shall be lived by this sage, so long this disgraceful story of my original condition will not die away."

12. इति समालोच्य मुनिं हन्तुं समुद्यतः, “ Thus reflecting he prepared (was about) to kill the sage."

13. मुनिस् तस्य चिकीर्षितं ज्ञात्वा पुनर् मूषिको भव इत्य् उक्ता मूषिक एव कृतः, "The sage discovering his intention, saying, 'again become a mouse,' he was reduced to (his former state of) a mouse.”

The student will observe in this story four peculiarities: 1st, the simplicity of the style; 2dly, the prevalence of compound words; 3dly, the scarcity of verbs; 4thly, the prevalence of participles in lieu of verbs.

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First sentence.-Asti, "there is," 3d sing. pres. of the root as, 2d conj., p. 101. Gautamasya," of Gautama," noun of the first class, masc. gend. gen. case (p. 31.). Munes, "of the sage," noun of the second class, masc. gend. gen. case (p. 33.). Visargah changed to s by r. 25. a. p. 14. Tapovane, "in the sacred grove," or grove of penance," genitively dependent compound, p. 161., the first member of the compound formed by the crude noun tapas, "penance," as being changed to o by r. 29.; the last member, by the loc. case of vana, "grove," noun of the first class, neut. (p. 32.). Mahātapā, "great devotion," relative form of descriptive compound, p. 168., the first member formed by the crude adjective mahā (substituted for mahat), "great"; the last member, by the nom. case of tapas, "devotion," noun of the seventh class, neut. (pp. 43. 44.), Visargah being dropped by r. 28. b. p. Nāma, “by name," an adverb, p. 151. a. Munih, "a sage," noun of the second class, masc., nom. case. Vis. remains by r. 24. b.

14.

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Second sentence.-Tena, “by him," instr. case of the pronoun tat, p. 51. r. 77. Ashramasannidhāne, " in the neighbourhood of his hermitage," genitively dependent compound, p. 161., the first member formed by the crude noun ashrama, "hermitage"; the last member by the loc. case of sannidhāna, “neighbourhood," noun of the first class, neut. (p. 32.). The initial a of this word blends with the final of tena into ā, by r. 4. p. 7. Mūshikashāvakah, “ a young mouse," or "the young of a mouse," genitively dependent compound, p. 161., the first member formed by the crude noun mūṣhika, "a mouse"; the last, by the nom. case of shāvaka, “the young of any animal," noun of the first class (p. 31.). Vis. remains by r. 24. a. Kākamukhād, “from the beak (or mouth) of a crow," genitively dependent compound, p. 161.; the first member, formed by the crude noun kāka, “a crow"; the last, by the abl. case of mukha, “mouth,” noun of the first class, neut. (p. 32.), t being changed to d by r. 14. p. 11. Brashto, "fallen," nom. case, sing. masc. of the pass. past part. of the root bhransh, p. 140. n.; ah changed to o by r. 26. a. Drishtah, "seen," nom. case, sing. masc. of the pass. past part. of the root drish (T), p. 139. i. Vis. remains by r. 24. b.

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Third sentence.-Tato, “then," adv. p. 152. a. ; as changed to o by r. 29. and 26. a. Dayāyuktena, "touched with compassion," instrumentally dependent compound, p. 160.; the first member formed by the crude noun dayā, "compassion"; the last, by the instr. case of yukta, “endowed with," pass. past part. of the root yuj, p. 139. i. Tena, see second sentence. Muninā, “by the sage," noun of the second class, masc. gend. instr. case (p. 33.). Nīvārakaṇaih, "with grains of wild rice," genitively dependent compound, p. 161.; the first member formed by the crude noun nīvāra, "wild rice"; the second, by the instr. plur. of kana, noun of the first class, masc. Vis. remains by r. 24. a. Sanvarddhitah, "reared," nom. case, sing. of the pass. past part. of the causal form of the root vridh, p. 141. Vis. remains by r. 24. b. Fourth sentence.-Tadanantaram, 66 soon after this," compound adverb, the first member formed with the pronoun tat, "this"; the second by the adverb anantaram, "after." Mūṣhikam, noun of the first class, masc. gend., acc. case (p. 31.). Khāditum, "to eat," infinitive mood of the root khād, p. 85. r. 106. and r. 200. Anudhāvan, “pursuing after," "running after," nom. case, sing. masc. of the pres. part. paras. of the root dhāv, “to run," with the preposition anu, "after,” p. 136. b. Viḍālo, "a cat," noun of the first class, masc. (p. 31.), nom. case; ah changed to o by r. 26. a. Muninā, see third sentence. Drishṭah, see second sentence.

Fifth sentence.-Tam, acc. case of the pronoun tat (p.51.), used as a definite article, p. 28. r. 46. Mushikam, see fourth sentence. Bhitam, "terrified," acc. case, sing. masc. of the pass. past part. of the root bhi, p. 138. b. Ālokya, “per

ceiving," indeclinable part. of the root lok, with the prep. ā, p. 145. f. Tapahprabhāvāt," through the efficacy of his devotion" (p. 184. c.), genitively dependent compound, p. 161. ; the first member formed by the crude noun tapas, "devotion," s being changed to Visargah, by r. 29. and 24. a. ; the second, by the abl. case of prabhāva, noun of the first class, masc. (p. 31.). Tena, see second sentence. Muninā, see third sentence. Mūṣhiko, nom. case, ah changed to o by r. 26. a. Balishṭho, “very strong," nom. case, masc. of the superlative form of the adj. balin, “strong” (see p. 47.), ah changed to o by r. 26. a. Vidalah, see fourth sentence. Vis. remains by r. 24. a. Kritah, "changed,” “made,” nom. case, sing. of the pass. past part. of the root kri, p. 138. b. Vis. remains by r. 24. b.

Sixth sentence.-Sa, nom. case of the pronoun tat (p, 51.), used as a definite article, p. 28. r. 46. Vis. dropped, by note †, p. 14. Vidalah, see fourth sentence. Kukkurād, “the dog," noun of the first class, masc. (p. 31.), abl. case after a verb of fearing (p. 193. a.), t changed to d by r. 14. Bibheti, "fears,” 3d sing. pres. tense of the root bhi, 3d conj. p. 119. Tatah," upon that," adv. p. 152. a. ; as changed to ah, by r. 29. and 24. a. Kukkurah, "the dog," nom. case (p. 31.). Vis. remains by r. 24. a. Kritah, see fifth sentence. Kukkurasya," of the dog," gen. case (p. 31.). Vyāghrān, "for the tiger," noun of the first class, masc. (p. 31.), abl. case, after a noun of "fear" (p. 184. g.), t changed to n by r. 15. Mahad, "great," noun adj. of the fifth class, r. 63. nom. case, sing. neut. t changed to d by r. 14. Bhayam, “fear,” noun of the first class, neut. (p. 32.), nom. case. Tadanantaram, see fourth sentence. Vyaghrah, nom. case. Vis. remains by r. 24. a. Kritah, see fifth

sentence.

Seventh sentence.-Atha, "now," inceptive particle, p. 154. b. Vyāghram, acc. case. Api, "even," adv. Mushikanirvishesham, “ as not differing at all from the mouse," compound adverb; the first member formed by the crude noun mūṣhika; the second by the neut. form of the substantive visheṣha, “difference,” with nir prefixed, see p. 177. b. Pashyati, 3d sing. pres. tense of the root drish, 1st conj. p. 107. Munih, see first sentence.

Eighth sentence.-Atah, "then," adv. p. 152. a. Sarve, "all," pronominal adj. nom. case, plur. masc. p. 54. r. 87. Tatrasthā, "residing in the neighbourhood," anomalous compound, in its character resembling a locatively dependent; the first member being formed by the adverb tatra (p. 152. b.), “there,” or “in that place”; the second by the nom. plur. masc. of the participial noun of agency of the root sthā, "to remain," p. 149. 1. Vis. dropped by r. 28. b. Janās, persons," noun of the first class, masc. gend. (p. 31.) nom. case, plur. Vis. changed to s by r. 25. a. Tam, acc. case of the pronoun tat (p. 51.), used as a definite article. Vyaghram, "tiger," noun of the first class, masc. gend. (p. 31.) acc. case. Drishtwā, "having seen,"

E E

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indeclinable past participle of the root drish (E), p. 143. a. Vadanti, “they say," 3d plur. pres. of the root vad, 1st conj.

Ninth sentence.-Anena, "by this," instr. case of the demonstrative pronoun ayam, p. 52. Muninā, see third sentence. Mushiko, nom. case, ah changed to o by r. 26. b. Ayam, "this," nom. case of the demonstrative pron., p. 52. The initial a cut off by r. 26. b. Vyaghratām, "the condition of a tiger," fem. abstract noun of the first class (p. 31.), acc. case, formed from the substantive vyāghra, a tiger," by the affix tā, p. 24. xiv. Nitah, “brought,” nom. case, sing. masc. of the pass. part. of the root ni, p. 138. b.

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Tenth sentence.-Etach, "this," acc. case, neut. of the demonstrative pron. etat, p. 52. r. 79., t being changed to ch by r. 17. Chhrutwā, "overhearing," indeclinable participle of the root shru (), p. 143. a. becomes by r. 17. Vyāghrah, श्रुत्वा nom. case. Vis. remains by r. 24. a. Savyatho, "uneasy," relative compound, formed by prefixing the preposition saha to the fem. substantive vyathā, p. 169. r. 161. See also p. 32. †, ah changed to o by r. 26. b. Achintayat, “ reflected,”

3d sing. 1st pret. of the root chint, 10th conj. p. 87. e; the initial a cut off by r. 26. b.

Eleventh Sentence.-Yavad," as long as," adv. p. 151. a., t changed to d by r. 14. Anena, see ninth sentence. Jivitavyam, "to be lived," nom. case, neut. of the fut.

pass. part. of the root jiv, p. 146. a. See also r. 215. c. d. Tāvat," so long," adv. correlative to yāvat, p. 151. a. Idam, "this," nom. case, neut. of the demonstrative pron. ayam, p. 52. Mama, "of me," gen. case of the pronoun aham, “I,” p. 50. Swarūpākhyānam, "story of my original condition," genitively dependent compound, p. 161.; the first member formed by the crude noun swarupa, “natural form” (cf. r. 83.); the second by the nom. case of ākhyāna, noun of the first class, neuter, m retained by r. 23. Akirtikaram, "disgraceful," accusatively dependent compound; the first member formed by the crude noun akīrti, “disgrace"; the second by the nom. case, neut. of the participial noun of agency kara, p. 149. 1. Na, “not,” adv. p. 153. a. Palayishyate, “will die away," 3d sing. 2d fut. atm. of the compound

verb palāy, formed by combining the root i with the prep. parā, p. 174.

Twelfth Sentence.-Iti, "thus," adv. p. 153. e. See also r. 219. a. Samālochya, "reflecting," indeclinable part. of the compound verb samāloch (p. 145. f.), formed by combining the root loch with the prepositions sam and ā, pp. 174. 175.

Munim, acc. case.

and 115. and r. 200.

Hantum, "to kill," infinitive mood of the root han, pp. 85. Samudyatah, "prepared," nom. case, sing. masc. of the pass. past part. of the compound verb samudyam (p. 140. o.), formed by combining the root yam with the prepositions sam and ut.

Thirteenth sentence.-Munis, nom. case. Vis. changed to s by r. 25. a. Tasya,

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