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209. BENEDICTIVE. Only one example of this tense occurs in the Hitopadesha : नित्यं भूयात् सकल सुखवसतिः, “ may he constantly be the abode of all happiness." It is only used in pronouncing

benedictions.

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210. CONDITIONAL. This tense is even less frequent than the last. It is used in conditional propositions, as illustrated by the following example from Manu : यदि राजा दण्डं न प्रणयेत् तदा शूले मत्स्यान् इव अपक्ष्यन् दुर्बलान् बलवत्तराः, “ if the king were not to inflict punishment, then the stronger would roast the weak like fish on a spit "; or, according to the Scholiast, ff, “would cause injury."

SYNTAX OF PARTICIPLES.

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211. Participles govern the cases of the verbs whence they are derived ; as, व्याधं पश्यन्, “ seeing the fowler "; अरण्ये चरन्, “ walking in the forest"; शब्दम् आकर्ण्य, “having heard a noise "; पानीयम् अपीत्वा ,"he went away without drinking water."

Passive Past Participle.

212. The syntax of this most useful participle has been explained at p. 137. r. 125. and r. 199. When used actively it may often govern the accusative case; as, quy :, “he ascended the tree"; वर्त्म तीर्ण:, “having crossed the road "; अहं नगरीम् अनुप्राप्तः, "I reached the city." But its active use is restricted to neuter verbs. The following are other examples; fau fan, “the birds flew away"; an faqa:, "the fowler returned "; ■ ■*:, व्याधो निवृत्तः, "he fell asleep."

Active Past Participle.

t,

213. This participle is commonly used for a perfect tense active, and may govern the case of the verb; as सर्व्वं श्रुतवान्, “he heard everything"; mt afng enfofent, "the wife embraced her husband "; राज्ञो हस्ते फलं दत्तवान्, " he gave the fruit into the hand of the king."

Indeclinable Past Participles.

214. The importance of these participles has been noticed, p. 143. They occur, in narration, more commonly than any other, and are almost invariably used for the past tense, as united with a copulative conjunction ; thus, तद् आकर्ण्य निश्चितम् एव अयं कुकुर इति मत्वा छागं

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त्यक्ता स्वात्वा स्वगृहं ययौ, “having heard this, having thought to himself 'this is certainly a dog,' having abandoned the goat, having bathed, he went to his own house." In all these cases we should use in English the past tense with a conjunction; thus, "When he had heard this, he thought to himself that it must certainly be a dog. He then abandoned the goat, and when he had bathed, went to his own house." It is evident from this example that the indeclinable participles often stand in the place of a pluperfect tense, a tense which does not really exist in Sanscrit.

a. But although they always refer to something past, it should be observed that they may frequently be rendered in English by the present participle, as in the fifth sentence of the story at r. 220.

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b. Another though less frequent use of them is as gerunds in do; thus, शास्त्राण्य् अधीत्य * भवन्ति पण्डिताः, “ men become wise by reading the Shāstras"; भाय्या अप्य् अकार्य्यशतं कृत्वा भर्त्तव्या, “ a wife is to be supported even by doing a hundred wrong things"; fЯ, "what bravery is there in killing a sleeping man?"

c. Prof. Bopp considers the termination of this participle () to be the instrumental case of the same affix of which the infinitive termination (um) is the accusative. Whether this be so or not, there can be little doubt that the indeclinable participle bears about it much of the character of an instrumental case. And the proof of this is, that it is constantly found in grammatical connexion with the agent in this case; thus, सर्वैः पशुभिर् मिलित्वा सिंहो विज्ञप्त:, “by all the beasts having met together the lion was informed”; सर्वैर् जालम् आदाय उड्डीयतां, “ by all having taken up the net let it be flown away."

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Future Passive Participles.

215. The usual sense yielded by this participle is that of "fitness or "necessity"; and the usual construction required is, that the agent on whom the duty or necessity rests, be in the instrumental case, and the participle agree with the object; as, प्रवृत्तिर् न विधेया, “ by you the attempt is not to be made." Sometimes, however, the agent is the genitive case. Cf. p. 196. note.

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* As the Latin gerund is connected with the future participle in dus, so the Sanscrit indeclinable participle in ya is connected with the future passive participle This is noticed by Bopp.

in ya.

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a. If the verb govern two accusatives, one may be retained after the participle ; as, नयनसलिलं त्वया शान्तिं नेयं, “ the tear of the eye is to be brought to assuagement by thee."

b. Occasionally the neuter of this participle is used impersonally, in which case it does not agree with the object, but may govern it in the manner of the verb; thus, मया मामं गन्तव्यं, “it is to be gone by me to the village,” for मया मामो गन्तव्यः. So also i àg, “by you it is to be entered into the assembly.” c. The neuter (from ) is thus impersonally used, and in accordance with r. 190. requires the instrumental after it, as well as before; thus, fan, "by something it is to be become the cause," i.e. "there must be some cause"; स्वामिना सविशेषेण भवितव्यं, “ a ruler ought to be possessed of discrimination"; मया तव अनुचरेण भवितव्यं, “ I must become your companion.”

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d. It is not uncommon to find this participle standing merely in the place of a future tense, no propriety or obligation being implied; as, 774

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7 gada मृगमांसार्थिना गन्तव्यं, “ in all probability this hunter will go in quest of the deer's flesh"; where गन्तव्यं is used impersonally. त्वां दृष्ट्वा लोकैः किञ्चिद् वक्तव्यं, “when the people see you they will utter some exclamation." See also the eleventh sentence of the story, r. 220.

e. It would appear that the neuter of this participle is sometimes used infinitively, as expressive merely of the indeterminate action of the verb, in the manner of a future infinitive, without implying necessity or fitness. In such cases is added ; thus, वञ्चयितव्यम् इति, “ the being about to deceive"; मर्त्तव्यम् इति, “ the being

about to die."

SYNTAX OF ADVERBS, CONJUNCTIONS, AND INTERJECTIONS.

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216. The following examples illustrate the construction of the adverbs enumerated at p. 156., or elsewhere in Chapter VIII. न दण्डाद् ऋते शक्यः कर्त्तुं पापविनिग्रहः, “ the restraint of crime cannot be made without punishment"; शतं जन्मानि यावत्, “ for a hundred births ''; सर्पविवरं यावत्, “ up to the serpent's hole "; पुत्रेण सह, “ along with his son"; हेतुं विना, “ without cause "; अपराधेन विना, “ without fault"; विवराद् वहिर् निःसृत्य, " creeping out of the hole "; अवलोकन,क्षufa, "from the moment of seeing (him)"; : fa, “from that time forward"; v, "for the sake of wealth" (cf. r. 171. c.); :, "for her sake." तस्याः कृते, उपरि with the genitive, occurs rather frequently, and with some latitude of meaning; thus, सिंहस् तस्य उपरि पपात, " the lion fell upon him"; मम उपरि

विकारितः, " changed in his feelings towards me "; तव उपरि असदृशव्यबहारी, “not behaving properly towards thee "; पुत्रस्य उपरि क्रुद्धः, "angry with his son.", "beneath the tree"; us: समीपं, “ near the king"; पितुः सकाशाद घनम् अददाति, “ he receives money from his father"; fafa, "flesh thrown before the dog ";, “in my presence"; ч, “after us. साक्षात् may take an instrumental ; as, अन्यैः साक्षात्, “ before others." प्राक् may govern an ablative; as, प्राग् उपनयनाद् वेदं नोच्चारयेत्, “ before investiture let him not utter the Veda": or an accusative; as, A SIGNAAT:, "before twelve years are over."

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, “enough,” is used with the instrumental, with the force of a prohibi41, “away with fear," "do not fear."

tive particle; as,

b., “even," "merely," when compounded with another word is declinable; as, उत्तरमात्रं न ददाति, “he does not even give an answer"; न शब्दमात्राद् भेतव्यं,

66 one ought not to be afraid of mere noise.”

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and, when used as correlatives, are equivalent to the English so that, and the Latin ita ut; thus, यथा स्वामी जागर्त्ति तथा मया कर्त्तव्यं, “ I must so act that my master awake,” i. e. “I must do something to make my master awake.” So also त्वं न जानासि यथा गृहरक्षां करोमि, “ do not you know that I keep watch

in the house?"

d. यत् is also used for “ that"; as, अयं नूतनो न्यायो यद् अरातिं हत्वा सन्तापः क्रियते,

"this is a new doctrine, that having killed an enemy remorse should be felt."

e. f, "why?" may often be regarded as a note of interrogation which is not to be translated, but affects only the tone of voice in which a sentence is uttered; as, जातिमात्रेण किं कश्चित् पूज्यते, “ is any one honoured for mere birth?”

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It sometimes has the force of “ whether?” as, ज्ञायतां किम् उपयुक्त एतावद् वर्त्तनं Tenlin wguyen an, "let it be ascertained whether he is worthy to receive so large a salary, or whether he is unworthy "; मन्त्री वेति किं गुणयुक्तो राजा न वा, "the minister knows whether the king is meritorious or not."

f

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217. The conjunctions af and, "if," are commonly used with the indicative; as, यदि जीवति भद्राणि पश्यति, “ if he live he will behold prosperity"; af, “if there is need of me"; तृष्णा चेत् परित्यक्ता को दरिद्रः, “ if avarice were abandoned who would be poor?"

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218. The interjections fr and

require the accusative; as,

fag, "woe to the wretch!" and the vocative interjections

the vocative case; as, :, "O traveller!"

ON THE USE OF f with the RECTA ORATIO,

219. All the languages of the East are averse to the use of the obliqua oratio. In Sanscrit it is never admitted, and when any one relates the words or describes the sentiments or thoughts of another, the relator invariably represents him as speaking the actual words in his own person. In such cases the particle fa (properly meaning "so," "thus,") is often placed after the words quoted, and may be regarded as serving the purpose of inverted commas ; thus, शिष्या ऊचुः कृतकृत्या वयम् इति, the pupils said, “ we have accomplished our object," not according to the English or Latin idiom, "the pupils said that they had accomplished their object." So also ozgû zfa gà xâ, your husband calls you “quarrelsome,”. where is in the nominative case, as being the actual word supposed to be spoken by the husband himself in his own person. So again युष्मान् विश्वासभूमय इति सर्वे पक्षिणो मम अमे af, all the birds praise you in my presence, saying, “he is an object of confidence," where the particle is equivalent to "say

ing," and the word f

is not in the accusative, to agree

with g, as might be expected, but in the nominative, as being युष्मान्, the actual word supposed to be uttered by the birds in their own persons. In some cases, however, the accusative is retained before इति ; as, in the following example from Manu : अज्ञं बालम् इत्य् , they call an ignorant man child." But in the latter part of the same line it passes into a nominative; as, fun

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, but (they call) a teacher of scripture "father." II. 153. a. The use off is by no means restricted to the quotation of the words spoken by another. It often has reference merely to what is passing in the mind either of another person or of one's self. When so employed, it is usually joined with the indeclinable participle, or of some other part of a verb, signifying, "to think," suppose," &c., and may be translated by the English conjunction that, to which, in fact, it may be regarded as equivalent; thus, ¤ânzì vuci angufn zfa uftu, “having ascertained that it is a monkey who rings the bell ; पुनर् अर्थ वृद्धिः करणीया इति मतिर् बभूव, “his idea was that an increase of wealth ought again to be made"; यस्य एतादृशी भाय्या इति मनसि निधाय, “ reflecting in his mind that I am happy in possessing such a wife." The accusative is also retained

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