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be called,” or “to be esteemed,” and other passive verbs used denominatively, may take a nominative after them; as, UIT HEUTS: FITT,“let a king be the protector of his subjects"; FT FAUSTICI frittfat, “she appears sorrowful "; mstafaarfa, “the village appears like a desert "; va ser uforutaat, “a king is called Justice "; un fendacusů,“ this (book) is called Hitopadesha.”
Accusative Case after the Verb. 191. Transitive verbs generally govern this case; as, favi Host #T:, “ Brahmā created the universe "; gsaifu feralfo art, “the woman gathers flowers "; ATUTE TET 18:, “ the dying man gave up the ghost "; hy aston," one should avoid wine "; nei afɛ, " speak the truth.
a. So also verbs of “motion "; as, ar fi ata ufa:, “the holy man goes to the place of pilgrimage "; 7: HIC Garant, “rivers run into the ocean "; fa fel, "he wanders over the earth."
b. Verbs of motion are not unfrequently used with substantives to supply the place of other verbs; as, wifi qfa," he goes to fame” for “ he becomes famous "; HAMTA eft," he goes to equality" for "he becomes equal." "
c. The following are other examples : w91947 sefa, “he desires what is unattainable"; विद्यां चिन्तयेत् , “he should think on wisdom"; अश्वम् भारोहति, “ he mounts his horse"; ofu wifi, “they began the business"; Tata ATTA, “ grieve not for the departed"; starfa vifa, “ he deserves the sovereignty of the universe"; va maioci sta, “ he lies down in a cave of the mountain.”
d. There are certain verbs which take a redundant accusative case after them of a substantive derived from the same root; as, ut Tù, “he swore an oath"; वसति वासं, “he dwells"; वर्तते वृत्तिं, “he conducts himself"; वाक्यं वदति, “he speaks a speech"; fa , “he raises a cry” (cf. the Greek expressions aéyw λόγον, χαίρω χαράν, &c.).
Double Accusative after the Verb. 192. Verbs of “ asking” govern a double accusative; as, sa ai area, “he seeks a boon of the god"; va TIR yun, “he begs money from the king." Of “ speaking"; as, TER T wearat, " he addressed a speech to the king.”
a. Causal verbs; as, wafü nigrofa , “he causes the guest to eat food”; mai arata to a feri, “I cause you to know what is for your interest "; शिष्यं वेदान अध्यापयति गुरू, “the Guru teaches his pupil the Vedas"; तां गृहं प्रवेशयति, “he causes her to enter the house"; फलपुष्पोदकं माहयामास नृपात्मजं, “he presented the king's son with fruits, flowers, and water”; y w Wiù fa, " she causes her son to sit on her lap” (literally “ her hip"); faent arti fa, “ learning leads a man into the presence of a king."
b. The following are other examples : * Hargfara warfafugi, “they inaugurated him general,” more usually joined with an acc. and loc. ; få yfi qua, “she chooses a god for her husband ”; waferia Farfa qurt, “she gathers blossoms from the trees”; ATT ANEUE JA HIÇİ, “he sent them to the abode of Yama" (Hades); स्वचेष्टितानि नरं गुरुवं विपरीततां वा नयनि, “his own acts lead a man to eminence or the reverse.”
Instrumental Case after the Verb. 193. Any verb may be joined with the instrumental, to express the instrument, or cause, or manner of the action ; as, gou anna Arafat, " the flower fades by reason of the wind "; wat: misfor, “he plays with dice "; huisfort auf fahreyfa,“ the cloud puts out the fire with its rain "; eat stafa, “ he lives happily.”
a. In this sense many causals take an instrumental; as, at faeTC HTCATATH, “ he caused her to eat sweet-meats.”
b. After verbs of“ motion” this case is used in reference either to the vehicle by which, or the place on which, the motion takes place; as, ten parfa, “he goes in a chariot "; enfa, “he goes on horse-back”; Arifu afa, “he goes on the road”; gran ami 2196741, “he navigated the ocean in u boat.” Similarly, garg tua: afort,“ tears flowed through the eyes."
c. After verbs of “ carrying," "placing,” &c., it is used in reference to the place on which any thing is carried or placed : as, वहति मूना इन्धनं, “he bears faggots on his head”;
कृ found with this case in the sense of placing; as, forcat g* DA, “he placed his son on his head." The following are other examples : शिष्येण गच्छति गुरुः, “the master goes in company with the pupil ”; FEATHTH Hrafor., “he consulted with his ministers.” But in this sense he is usually placed after it. T HELT सङ्गच्छति, “ the husband meets the wife”; Hatsrafa to F:, "he harnesses the horses to the chariot ; cea ferycerat, “he is separated from the body,” more usually with the ablative. you wafari, “he fights his enemies,” or far: #F.
d. Verbs of “ boasting"; as, ferat farura, "you boast of your learning"; tai UTHT TÀ, “you glory in the fame of others.” swearing”; as, धनुषा
19, “he swore by his bow.”
e. Verbs of “buying” and “selling” take the instrumental of the price; as, सहसैर् अपि मूखीणाम् एकं क्रीणीष्व पण्डितं, “buy one wise man even for thousands of fools”; TAI HETT TEE fasituta, “ he sells his house for a thousand cows."
Dative after the Verb., 194. All verbs in which a sense of imparting or communicating any thing to any object is inherent, may take an accusative of the thing imparted, and a dative of the object to which it is imparted. (Frequently, however, they take a genitive or even a locative of the object). gara FIGCATTI
, GITA,“ he gives sweetmeats to his son "; विप्राय गां प्रतिशृणोति, “he promises a cow to the Brahman"; देवदत्ताय धनं धारयति, “ he ones money to Devadatta"; कन्यां तस्मै प्रतिपादय,
consign the maiden to him,” more usually with the locative. The following are other examples of the dative ; तेषां विनाशाय प्रकुरुते HAT:, “he sets his mind on their destruction "; "THRY Afi Pu," he set his mind on departure,” or with the locative. The hei te, " that is pleasing to me "; from: Fufa na, “I will declare this to my pupils”; He us fastigurat, “he makes known all to the king,” these are also joined with the genitive of the person. अमृतत्वाय कल्पते , “he is rendered fit for immortality"; प्रभवति मम बधाय,
he has the power to kill me "; तान् मातुर् बधाय अचोदयत् , “ he incited them to the murder of their mother "; 3914 yarat, “he is angry with his son."
Ablative after the Verb. 195. All verbs may take an ablative of the object from which any thing proceeds, or arises, or is produced; as, para quia ,
the leaf falls from the tree "; Ffuri para tam,“ blood flows from the body"; सासनाद् उत्तिष्ठति, “he rises from his seat"; मृत्पिण्डतः कती gia TEF Faxfa, “from the lump of clay the artist makes whatever he wishes ” (p. 152. a.); feraturç afet unani, “ from education a person attains capacity "; FAT TOTTA FRUTT,“ he went out from the city."
a. Verbs of “fearing” may be joined with the ablative; as, साधुर् न तथा मृत्योर् बिभेति यथा अनृतात, “ a good man does not fear death so much as falsehood "; çubG JEH FPT,“ the whole world stands in awe of punishment.”
b. The following are other examples: GHIGG Wadefa, “he descends from the palace"; विष्णुः खगाद् अवततार, “Vishnu descended from heaven"; कनकसूत्रम् We wamefa, “he takes off (causes to descend) the golden bracelet from his
body"; निवर्तते पापात् , “he ceases from wickedness"; वचनाद् विरगम, “he left off speaking”; achita funi Fren gar nicht ohi“a virtuous son saves his father from hell"; अश्वमेधसहस्रात् सत्यम् अतिरिच्यते, “truth is superior to a thousand sacrifices”; afara watafa, "he neglects his own interest.”
Genitive after the V'erb. 196. The genitive, in Sanscrit, is constantly interchangeable with the dative, locative, or even accusative. It is more especially, however, used to supply the place of the first of these cases, so that almost all verbs may take a genitive as well as dative of the object to which any thing is imparted. For example, grigia Y Geifa,“ he gives money to the poor.” It may be used for the locative after verbs of “consigning "; as, fotad H HÀufa, “he deposits a pledge with me"; or, of “trusting "; as, a afya alui mata, “nobody puts trust in women "; and for the accusative, in examples such as, अचिन्तितानि दुःखानि आयानि देहिनां, “ unexpected ills come upon corporeal beings.
a. Other examples are : अजानताम् अस्माकं ख्यापय कस्य असि भायो, “ tell us who are ignorant of it, whose wife you are ?” कस्य (for कामात) बिभ्यति धार्मिकाः, 'of whom are the righteous afraid?" यद् अन्यस्य प्रतिजानीते न तद् अन्यस्य दद्यात् ,
one should not give to one what one promises to another,”; HH a qulfat, “he does not hear me” (cf. the Greek usage); HH HHT:, “remember me,” or with the accusative. अस्माकं मृत्युः प्रभवति, “death overcomes us"; अग्निर् न तृप्पति 71819, “fire is not satisfied with fuel"; ni wan, "forgive them.”
Locative after the Verb. 197. This case is very widely applicable, but, as elsewhere remarked, is frequently interchangeable with the dative and genitive. The first sense of the locative requires that it should be united with verbs, in reference only to the place or time in which any thing is done ; as, a Asla,“ he sinks in the mud "; y tafa, “he dwells in the city "; var fagfa, “he stands in the front of the fight "; 17 agua, “at sun-rise he awakes.” But the transition from the place to the object, or recipient of any action, is
* This vague use of the genitive to express various relations prevails also in early Greek.”
natural, and hence it is that verbs are found with the locative of the object to which any thing is imparted or communicated, as in the following examples : मा प्रयच्छ ईश्वरे धनं, “ bestow not money on the mighty "; after genfu fafanh, “I intrust my affairs to him"; पुत्रे अगुरीयकं समर्पयति, “he consigns a ring to his son"; योग्ये area mea TTTUTTİ, “he intrusts the burthen of the kingdom to a capable minister "; # A FACUTA,“ one should place (bury) a dead man in the ground "; YHT CUTfa,“ he applies his mind to virtue.” In this sense a is used ; as, yê PATH WRIT," he placed the wood on his back "; Afi utu olfat," he applies his mind to sin.”
a. When &T, “ to give,” is used for “to put," it follows the same analogy; as, तस्य पुछाये हस्तं देहि, “put your hand on the end of its tail;" भस्मचये पदं ददौ, “ he placed his foot on a heap of ashes.” Similarly, ara! yasfeen, “ he was held by the skirt of his garment.” So also verbs of " seizing," “striking," केशेषु गृह्णाति or आकृषति, “he sei.ses or drags him by the hair"; मुम्ने प्रहरति, “he strikes a sleeping man.”
b. Other examples are, se ara arata, “he is engaged in a very severe penance”; accrefy at ayat *:, “do not busy yourself about other people's affairs"; विषयेषु सज्यते, “he is addicted to objects of sense"; सी.लोकहिते रमते, “he delights in the good of all the world”; ainfiora falsa, “he is appointed to the command of the fort”; et qui gfe fardhufa,“ he yokes two bulls to the pole"; सैनापत्ये अभिषिञ्च मां, “ anoint me to the generalship"; यतते 91.fut, “he strives to suppress evil-doers.”
a afya ya 97944 SETİ,“ such language is not suited to a person like me”; प्रभुत्वं त्वयि प्रयुज्यते, “sovereignty is suited to you"; आसने उपाविशत् , “ he reclined on a seat"; वृष्याम् भासख,
s sit thou on a cushion”; शत्रुषु fayfafa, , “ he confides in his enemies”; arwurut: cafe, “it falls at his feet"; gofa meg, “it rolls at the feet.”
Change of Case after the same Verb. 198. This sometimes occurs ; as, विधुरो धृतराष्ट्राय कुन्ती च गान्धायाः सच्चे acuni, “ Vidhura and Kuntī announced every thing, the one to Dhritarăshtra, the other to Gāndhāri” (Astrashikshā 34. Ed. Prof. Johnson), where the same verb governs a dative and genitive. Similarly, in the Mitralábha (p. 10.), fui विश्वासो न कर्तव्यः स्त्रीषु च, “confidence is not to be placed in horned animals or women.”