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be called," or "to be esteemed," and other passive verbs used denominatively, may take a nominative after them; as,

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स्यात्, "let a king be the protector of his subjects"; a favarı प्रतिभाति, " she appears sorrowful "; मामोऽरण्यं प्रतिभाति, “ the village appears like a desert"; fort, “a king is called Jusराजा धर्म अभिधीयते, tice"; feu, “this (book) is called Hitopadesha.”

Accusative Case after the Verb.

191. Transitive verbs generally govern this case; as, fa

:, "Brahma created the universe "; gunfu faifa ard, “the पुष्पाणि चिनोति नारी, woman gathers flowers ; प्राणान् जहौ मुमूर्षुः, "the dying man gave up the ghost"; मधु वर्जयेत्, “ one should avoid wine "; तवं ब्रूहि, “ speak

the truth."

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a. So also verbs of "motion "; as, af goes to the place of pilgrimage";

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gfa:, “the holy man

: af, “rivers run

into the ocean"; fat, “he wanders over the earth."

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b. Verbs of motion are not unfrequently used with substantives to supply the place of other verbs; as, fame" for "he becomes famous";

for "he becomes equal."

c. The following are other examples:

nfi qnfa, 'he goes to fa, "he goes to equality"

f, “he desires what is unat

tainable"; विद्यां चिन्तयेत्, “he should think on wisdom"; अश्वम् आरोहति, “he mounts his horse"; कम्मीणि आरेभिरे, “ they began the business"; गतान् मा शुचः, ' grieve not for the departed”; सर्व्व.लोकाधिपत्यम् अर्हति, “he deserves the sovereignty of the universe"; angin, “he lies down in a cave of the mountain.”

d. There are certain verbs which take a redundant accusative case after them of a substantive derived from the same root; as, ч ù, "he swore an oath”; वसति वासं, “he dwells"; वर्त्तते वृत्तिं, “he conducts himself"; वाक्यं वदति, “he speaks a speech"; f, "he raises a cry" (cf. the Greek expressions Aéyw λόγον, χαίρω χαράν, &c.).

Double Accusative after the Verb.

192. Verbs of “asking" govern a double accusative; as, i, “he seeks a boon of the god"; ri mâyà, “he begs money from the king." Of "speaking"; as, USIC TECH WE, "he addressed a speech to the king.” a. Causal verbs; as, faff, "he causes the guest to eat food"; zi aluunfa un à fe, “I cause you to know what is for your interest"; शिष्यं वेदान् अध्यापयति गुरुः, “ the Guru teaches his pupil the Vedas"; तां गृहं

प्रवेशयति, “he causes her to enter the house"; फलपुष्पोदकं माहयामास नृपात्मजं, ❝he presented the king's son with fruits, flowers, and water"; ya

आरोपयति, "she causes her son to sit on her lap" (literally "her hip"); fan ai qi ugaufa, "learning leads a man into the presence of a king."

b. The following are other examples:

grafna wfufafa:, "they inaugu

rated him general," more usually joined with an acc. and loc.;

qufn,

“ she chooses a god for her husband "; अवचिनोति कुसुमानि वृक्षान्, “she gathers blossoms from the trees"; तान् प्राहिणोद् यमसादनं, “he sent them to the abode of Yama" (Hades); àfenfa ai yeå fautinni an auf, "his own acts lead

a man to eminence or the reverse."

Instrumental Case after the Verb.

193. Any verb may be joined with the instrumental, to express the instrument, or cause, or manner of the action; as, got an auf, "the flower fades by reason of the wind"; : sfa, "he plays

with dice"; मेघोsग्निं वर्षेर् निर्वापयति, " the cloud puts out the fire with its rain"; tafa," he lives happily." सुखेन जीवति,

a. In this sense many causals take an instrumental; as, i fagrâç sisenena, "he caused her to eat sweet-meats."

b. After verbs of "motion" this case is used in reference either to the vehicle by which,

or the place on which, the motion takes place; as,

fa, “he goes in a

chariot"; fa, "he goes on horse-back"; anu nefa, “"he goes on the road"; gyd ami A, "he navigated the ocean in a boat." Similarly, सागरं नौकया, सुस्राव नयनैः सलिलं, “ tears flowed through the eyes.”

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is

c. After verbs of "carrying," "placing," &c., it is used in reference to the place on which any thing is carried or placed : as, वहति मूड्डा इन्धनं, “he bears faggots on his head"; Jan, “the dog is borne on the shoulders." कृ found with this case in the sense of placing ; as, शिरसा पुत्रम् अकरोत्, “he placed his son on his head." The following are other examples: शिष्येण गच्छति गुरुः,

कुक्कुरः

"the master goes in company with the pupil"; #azıara afafr:, "he consulted with his ministers." But in this sense is usually placed after it. ắt H सङ्गच्छति, "the husband meets the wife"; horses to the chariot;

ìstufa rå zâ:, “he harnesses the

faysun, “he is separated from the body,” more usually with the ablative. युध्यते शत्रुभि:, “he fights his enemies,” or शत्रुभि: सह .

d. Verbs of "boasting"; as, far far, “you boast of your learning"; qtai aya araà, “you glory in the fame of others." Of "swearing"; as, धनुषा शेपे, “he swore by his bow.”

e. Verbs of "buying" and "selling" take the instrumental of the price; as, सहस्रैर् अपि मूर्खाणाम् एकं क्रीणीष्व पण्डितं, “buy one wise man even for thousands of fools"; गवां सहस्रेण गृहं विक्रीणीते, “he sells his house for a thousand cows.”

Dative after the Verb.

194. All verbs in which a sense of imparting or communicating any thing to any object is inherent, may take an accusative of the thing imparted, and a dative of the object to which it is imparted. (Frequently, however, they take a genitive or even a locative of the object). yar #çaq ççıfa, “he gives sweetmeats to his son"; विप्राय गां प्रतिशृणोति, “he promises a cow to the Brahman"; देवदत्ताय धनं धारयति, “he owes money to Devadatta "; कन्यां तस्मै प्रतिपादय, "consign the maiden to him," more usually with the locative. The following are other examples of the dative; तेषां विनाशाय प्रकुरुते Я, “he sets his mind on their destruction "; 19 xfi çûì, “he set his mind on departure," or with the locative.À, "that is pleasing to me"; f: fan, “I will declare this to my pupils"; a&i us faşıyufa, "he makes known all to the king," these are also joined with the genitive of the person. अमृतत्वाय कल्पते, “ he is rendered fit for immortality "; प्रभवति मम बधाय, he has the power to kill me "; तान् मातुर् बधाय अचोदयत्, “ he incited them to the murder of their mother"; fa, "he is angry

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195. All verbs may take an ablative of the object from which any thing proceeds, or arises, or is produced; as, gufa quin qi,

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“ the leaf falls from the tree "; रुधिरं श्रवति गात्रात्, “ blood flows from the body ''; आसनाद् उत्तिष्ठति, “he rises from his seat "; मृत्पिण्डतः कर्त्ती कुरुते यद्यद् इच्छति, “ from the lump of clay the artist makes whatever he wishes" (p. 152. a.); fang auf, “from education a person attains capacity"; f," he went out from the city." a. Verbs of "fearing" may be joined with the ablative; as, साधुर् न तथा मृत्योर् बिभेति यथा अनृतात्, a good man does not fear death so much as falsehood "; दण्डाद् उद्विजते

in awe of punishment."

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जगत्,

"the whole world stands

cię wadefa, “he descends from the

b. The following are other examples: palace"; विष्णु: स्वर्गद् अवततार, “ Vishnu descended from heaven"; कनकसूत्रम् wyıq wantefn, “he takes off (causes to descend) the golden bracelet from his

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body'; निवर्त्तते पापात्, “ he ceases from wickedness"; वचनाद् विरराम, “he left of speaking"; नरकात् पितरं त्रायते पुत्रो धार्मिकः, “a virtuous son saves his father from hell"; अश्वमेधसहस्रात् सत्यम् अतिरिच्यते, “ truth is superior to a thousand sacrifices"; स्वहितात् प्रमाद्यति, “he neglects his own interest.”

Genitive after the Verb.

*

196. The genitive, in Sanscrit, is constantly interchangeable with the dative, locative, or even accusative. It is more especially, however, used to supply the place of the first of these cases, so that almost all verbs may take a genitive as well as dative of the object to which any thing is imparted. For example, दरिद्रस्य धनं

ef, "he gives money to the poor." It may be used for the locative after verbs of "consigning"; as, fad an unqufa, “he deposits a pledge with me ": or, of "trusting"; as, a afan aìui

,"nobody puts trust in women "; and for the accusative, in examples such as, afafanıfa g:unfa auifa è̟fzai, “unexpected ills come upon corporeal beings.'

a. Other examples are: अजानताम् अस्माकं ख्यापय कस्य असि भाय्या, “ tell us who are ignorant of it, whose wife you are ?' कस्य (for कामात्) बिभ्यति धार्मिकाः,

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“ of whom are the righteous afraid?” यद् अन्यस्य प्रतिजानीते न तद् अन्यस्य दद्यात् , one should not give to one what one promises to another, "'; मम न शृणोति, "he does not hear me" (cf. the Greek usage); :, "remember me," or with the accusative. अस्माकं मृत्युः प्रभवति, “ death overcomes us"; अग्निर् न तृप्यति , "fire is not satisfied with fuel"; i :, "forgive them."

Locative after the Verb.

197. This case is very widely applicable, but, as elsewhere remarked, is frequently interchangeable with the dative and genitive. The first sense of the locative requires that it should be united with verbs, in reference only to the place or time in which any thing is done ; as, पक्के मज्जति, “ he sinks in the mud "; पुरे वसति, “he dwells in the city"; af fagfa, "he stands in the front of the But the transi

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fight"; qua, "at sun-rise he awakes." सूय्योदये प्रबुध्यते, tion from the place to the object, or recipient of any action, is

* This vague use of the genitive to express various relations prevails also in early Greek."

natural, and hence it is that verbs are found with the locative of the object to which any thing is imparted or communicated, as in the following examples: मा प्रयच्छ ईश्वरे धनं, “ bestow not money on the mighty "; तस्मिन् कार्य्याणि निक्षिपामि, “I intrust my affairs to him"; पुत्रे अङ्गुरीयकं समर्पयति, “he consigns a ring to his son"; योग्ये सचिवे न्यस्यति राज्यभारं, “he intrusts the burthen of the kingdom to a capable minister"; à yì fan, “one should place (bury) a dead प्रेतं भूमौ निदध्यात्, man in the ground"; fa," he applies his mind to virtue." In this sense is used; as, “he placed the wood on his back"; fùf, “he applies his mind to sin."

a. When दा, "to give," is used for "to put," it follows the same analogy; as, तस्य पुच्छाये हस्तं देहि, “put your hand on the end of its tail;” भस्मचये पदं ददौ, "he placed his foot on a heap of ashes." Similarly, sf, “he was held by the skirt of his garment." So also verbs of "seizing," "striking," केशेषु गृह्णाति or आकृषति, “he seizes or drags him by the hair "; सुप्ते प्रहरति, "he strikes a sleeping man."

b. Other examples are,, "he is engaged in a very severe penance”; परकार्य्येषु मा व्यावृतो भूः, “ do not busy yourself about other people's affairs”; विषयेषु सज्यते, “he is addicted to objects of sense"; सर्व्वलोकहिते रमते, “ he delights in the good of all the world"; दुर्गाधिकारे नियुज्यते, “ he is appointed to the command of the fort"; द्वौ वृषभौ धुरि नियोजयति, “he yokes two bulls to the pole"; सैनापत्ये अभिषिञ्च मां, “ anoint me to the generalship"; यतते पापनिमहे, “he strives to suppress evil-doers."

न मधे युज्यते वाक्यम् ईदृशं, "such language is not suited to a person like me "; प्रभुत्वं त्वयि प्रयुज्यते, “sovereignty is suited to you"; आसने उपाविशत्, “he reclined on a seat”; वृष्याम् आसस्व, "sit thou on a cushion”; nay fawfafa, “ he confides in his enemies"; चरणयोः पतति, “ it falls at his feet"; लुठति पादेषु,

"it rolls at the feet."

Change of Case after the same Verb.

198. This sometimes occurs ; as, विधुरो धृतराष्ट्राय कुन्ती च गान्धायाः सर्व्वं çani, “Vidhura and Kunti announced every thing, the one to Dhritarashtra, the other to Gandhāri" (Astrashikshā 34. Ed. Prof. Johnson), where the same verb governs a dative and genitive. Similarly, in the Mitralabha (p. 10.), fu विश्वासो न कर्त्तव्यः स्त्रीषु च, “ confidence is not to be placed in horned animals or

women."

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