« AnteriorContinua »
7. Numerals ifused partitively may take the genitive ; as, अश्वानां शतसहस्राणि, * a hundred thousand of the horses''; and, if comparatively, the ablative ; as,
186. The chief peculiarities in the syntax of pronouns have already been noticed in Chapter W., pp. 50-55. It remains to offer one or two remarks with reference more especially to the relative and interrogative.
d. In the use of these pronouns a very peculiar attractiom is often to be observed ; that is, when either a relative or interrogative pronoun has been used, and an indefinite pronoun would naturally be expected to follow, the relative or interrogative are repeated, as in the following examples: यो यस्य (for कस्यचित्) भाव: स्यात्, “ whatever may be the disposition of whom (i.e. any one)"; यद् रोचते यस्मै, “ whatever is pleasing to any one "; यस्य ये गुणा: सन्ति, “ whatever excellencies belong to any one "; यद् येन युज्यते, “ whatever corresponds with any thing "; केषां किं शास्त्रम् अध्ययनीर्यं, “ what book is to be read by whom ? (i.e. by any one),*
I87. The relative and interrogative are sometimes used together in an indefinite distributive sense ; as, यानि कानि मित्राणि, “ any friends whatever "; or more usually with वित् affixed to the interrogative ; as, यस्मे कस्मैचित्, “ to any one whatever.''
a. The neuter of the interrogative is often joined with the instrumental to signify “ what is the use of ? " " there is no need of "; as, श्रुतेन किं यो न धर्मम् आचरेत् किम् आत्मना यो न जितेन्द्रियो भवेत्, * of what use is scriptural knowledge (to one) who does not practice virtue, of what use is a soul (to one) whose passions are not kept in subjection ?" किं ते अनेन प्रश्रेन, “ what business have you to make this inguiry ?"
* See, on this Subject, Bopp's Comp. Gram. (Prof. Eastwick's Translation), vol. ii. p. 587.
Worninatice Case affer the 7erb. l90. Werbs signifying “ to be," " to become," “ to appear,
* The writer of these pages is indebted for this couplet to Mr. Seton Karr, of the Bengal Civil Service. It is in the mouth of all the Kulin Brahmans of IBengal, and is that on which they found thcir claim to precedence.
c. The following are other examples : अप्राप्यम् इच्छति, **he desires what is unattainable"; विद्यां चिन्तयेत् , “he should think on wisdom”; अश्वम् स्रारोहति, “ he mounts his horse"; कर्ममेाणि स्रारभिर, “ they begam the business"; गतान् मा शुच:,
*griece not.for the departed”; सचैलोकाधिपत्यम् अहैति, “he deserpes thesovereignty of the universe”; पट्टेतकन्दरँ शेते, * he lies doum in a cave of the mountain.”
d. There are certain verbs which take a redundant accusative case after them of a substantive derived from the same root; as, शपर्यं शेपं, *he Swore an oath ''; वसति वार्स, “he dwells"; वर्त्तेते। वृत्तिं, *he conducts himself"; वाक्यं वदति, “ he speaks a speech''; नदति नादं, “he raises a cry ” (cf the Greek expressions A6% Aॐov, xutpa) xapāy, &c.),
Double Accusatioe dfter the Werb.
192. Werbs of ‘*asking” gowern a double accusative ; as, देवं वरँ याचते, “he seeks a boon of the god"; धनं राजानं प्रार्थैयते, “he begs money from the king." Of “speaking”; as, राजानं वचनम् अब्रवीत्, “he addressed a speech to the kingः”
a. Causal verbs ; as, सतिfयै भोजयति अत्रं, “ he causes the guest to eat food "; त्वां बोधयामि यत् ते हृितं, “ I cause you to know what is for your interest "; शिष्पं वेदान् अध्यापयति गुरु:, “the Guru teaches his pupil the Wedas"; तां गृहं