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sake of examining the territory of one's enemies”; ya Ficist, “this is the time for battle"; तस्याम् अनुगगः, “affection for her"; उपदेशे अनादर, “disregard for advice "; a front HCU TU, “what anxiety about dying in battle?"
d. It is also used in giving the meaning of a root; as, E FUIÇA, " the root grah is in taking,” i.e. conveys the idea of “ taking.”
SYNTAX OF NOUNS OF TIME.
180. When reference is made to any particular division of time, the instrumental case is usually required; as, fafite H., “in three years "; zigarfare ate:, “in twelve months "; Tua, "in an instant "; faunt 100, "in how long time"? auga:, “in hundreds of years "; Flu,“ in process of time."
a. When, to duration of time, the accusative case is generally used ; as, wago," for a long time”; po ATÉ, “ for one month "; द्वौ मासौ, “ for two months"; वर्षशतं, “ for a hundred years"; शाखती:
to all eternity." The instrumental, however, is sometimes used in this sense also ; as, gifgif an arfuri grat, “having traded for twelve years "; aface.fça#:, “ for a few days."
6. When any particular period or epoch is referred to, the locative may be employed; as, afrifug, fa, “on a certain day "; ang fah,“ on the third day;" or sometimes the accusative; as, यां रात्रिं ते दूताः प्रविशन्ति स्म पुर्ण तां रात्रिं भजेन स्वप्नो दृष्टः, on the night when the ambassadors entered the city, on that night a dream was seen by Bharata.”
NOUNS OF PLACE AND DISTANCE.
181. Nouns expressive of distance between two places (according to Carey) may be in the nominative; as, कृष्णः शतं क्रोशाः सोमनाथात्,
Kộishna is a hundred Kos from Somanāth.” Space may also be expressed by the accusative; as, atsi folft:, “a hill for a Kos "; or by the instrumental; as, aigta TAT, “having gone for a Kos.” The place in which any thing is done may be in the locative; as, facing, “in Vidarbha."
SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES.
Accusative after the Adjective. 182. The only adjectives governing an accusative are those formed from desiderative bases; as, as farfag:, “desirous of
going home "; a wataa, “desirous of obtaining a son "; TE feu, “desirous of seeing the king.”
Instrumental after the Adjective. a. Adjectives or participles used adjectively, expressive of want or possession, require this case ; as, wera tai, “destitute of wealth "; vt Haryati,“ possessed of riches "; acut gût : , a jar full of water."
b. So also of "likeness" or "equality"; as, wat het ook a om a faofa, “there has never been, nor will there ever be, any one like him in this world "; TEERT HHT, “a crime equal to that of killing a Brahman"; mê: HAT UMT, "a wife as dear as life "; sufera e, “equal to the sun.” These are also joined with a genitive.
Genitive after the Adjective. 183. Adjectives signifying “dear to," or the reverse, are joined with the genitive; as, tai fyy:, “dear to kings "; vatt: Falui furat:, “husbands are dear to women "; a afya waluta yf44:,
women dislike nobody "; a rafa afraui, “he is detestable to his ministers."
a. Adjectives expressive of equality often require this case as well as the instrumental ; thus, HR HA:, “equal to all "; FT अनुरूपः,
“ like him "; stage picy:, “like the moon "; a ate ge4: an, “nobody is equal to him."
b. So also other adjectives ; as, aducan: wat vero qui, “ giving advice to others is easy to all men”; gelata fen:, “ worthy of happiness"; sfen: rai, "capable of toil.”
Locative after the Adjective. 184. Adjectives or participles used adjectively, expressive of “ power” or “ability,” are joined with this case; as, wala at w21:, “ horses able for the journey"; Hefa Tai Wa UFT, "a king who is a match for a great enemy"; $T TEGIÙ TE LETA,
unable to build a house, but able to demolish one."
a. So also other adjectives ; as, grey gurce:,“ skilled in arms”; why uis:, “ wise in trifles”; afa wow face at Er,“ is your master attached or adverse to you?" ugalfag Hreigt:, “ neglectful of his dependants.”
SYNTAX OF THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREE.
185. Adjectives in the comparative degree require the ablative case; as, पानी प्राणेभ्यो पि गरीयसी, "a wife dearer even than one's life "; ytanima gerat fant sta a faan, “there is no pleasanter touch in this world than the touch of a son"; वर्द्धनात् प्रजारक्षणं श्रेयः, " the protection of one's subjects is better than aggrandizement"; न मनो दुःखिततः पुमान् अस्ति, “there is not a more wretched man than I'; मतिर् बलाद् बलीयसी, “ mind is more powerful than strength."
a. Sometimes they govern the instrumental; as, प्राणैः प्रियतरः, " dearer than life"; न अस्ति मया कश्चिद् अल्पभाग्यतरो भुवि, “ there is nobody upon earth more unfortunate than I."
b. When it is intended to express “ the better of two things" the genitive may be used; as, अनयोर् देशयोः को देशो भद्रतरः, “ of these two countries which is the better?"
c. The comparative, in Sanscrit, is often resolved into the expression “ better and not "; as, वरं प्राणपरियागो न पुनर् ईदृशे कर्मणि ufa:, “ better abandon life than (literally, and not) engage in such an action"; वरं मौनं कायं न च वचनम् उक्तं यद् अनृतं, “it is better that silence should be kept than a speech uttered which is untrue,"
d. The superlative degree is usually joined with the genitive; as, ब्राह्मणो द्विपदा श्रेष्ठो गौर् वरिष्ठा चतुष्पदा । गुरुर् गरीयसां श्रेष्ठः पुत्रः स्पर्शवतां
a Brahman is the best of all bipeds, a cow of quadrupeds, a Guru of venerable things, a son of things possessed of touch "'; but sometimes with the locative; as, नरेषु बलवन्तमः, “the most powerful of men"; and even with an ablative; as, धान्यानां सङ्ग्रह उन्नमः सी.सङ्गहात्, “a store of grain is the best of all stores."
e. Comparison is often expressed by an adjective in the positive degree, joined with a noun in the ablative case ; as, नास्ति तस्मात् पुण्यवान, “there is not a happier than he."
f. Many words are in their nature comparative and require an ablative case, especially वरं, अवरं, अन्य, अन्यदा, अन्यत्र, इतर, पर, अधिक, जन; as, प्रक्षालनात् पङ्कस्य अस्पर्शनं वरं, "it is better not to touch mud than to wash it off"; दारिद्रम् अवरं मरणात् , “poverty is less desirable than death"; को मां मित्राद् अन्यस् त्रातुं समर्थः, “who is able to rescue me, other than a friend?" किनु दुःखम् अतः परं, "wl:at grief is greater than this?" न श्रुताद् अन्यद् विब्रूयात् , “ one ought not to speak differently from what one has heard"; ताकालाद् अन्यदा, “at another time
than the present"; नरस्य न अन्यत्र मरणाद् भयं, “there is no cause of fear to man from any other quarter than from death"; distance frei,“ more than a hundred yojanas"; कान्तोदन्तः सङ्गमात् किञ्चिद् अनः, "intelligence of a lover is something less than a meeting.”
g. Numerals if used partitively may take the genitive; as, yra O Heatfu, a hundred thousand of the horses"; and, if comparatively, the ablative; as, faqiçra forud cui, “ a fine the double of that which is in dispute.”
SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS.
186. The chief peculiarities in the syntax of pronouns have already been noticed in Chapter V., pp. 50—55. It remains offer one or two remarks with reference more especially to the relative and interrogative.
a. In the use of these pronouns a very peculiar attraction is often to be observed; that is, when either a relative or interrogative pronoun has been used, and an indefinite pronoun would naturally be expected to follow, the relative or interrogative are repeated, as in the following examples : यो यस्य (for कस्यचित्) भावः स्यात्, “whatever may be the disposition of whom (i.e. any one)”; u रोचते यस्मै, “ whatever is pleasing to any one"; यस्य ये
सन्ति, , “whatever excellencies belong to any one "; ofta gaua, “whatever corresponds with any thing"; केषां किं शास्त्रम् अध्ययनीयं, “ what book is to be read by whom ? (i.e. by any one)."
187. The relative and interrogative are sometimes used together in an indefinite distributive sense; as, aifa hafa fratfu, “any friends whatever "; or more usually with fan affixed to the interrogative; as, ata ofen, " to any one whatever.”
a. The neuter of the interrogative is often joined with the instrumental to signify “what is the use of ? " "there is no need of"; as, श्रुतेन किं यो न धर्मम् आचरेत् किम् आत्मना यो न जितेन्द्रियो भवेत्,
of what use is scriptural knowledge (to one) who does not practice virtue, of what use is a soul (to one) whose passions are not kept in subjection ?" foi à Ta Pa, “what business have you to make this inquiry ?"
* See, on this subject, Bopp's Comp. Gram. (Prof. Eastwick’s Translation), vol. ii. p. 537.
b. As already shewn (p. 166.), a relative pronoun is sometimes rendered unnecessary by the use of the relative compound ; thus, word afgan. Er is equivalent to नगरी यस्याश चन्द्रिका धौतानि हयाणि, “a city whose palaces were silvered by the moon-beams.” The relative, when followed by a pluperfect tense, may sometimes be expressed by the indeclinable participle; thus, fost ari Fri, “a lion having killed a hunter,” or “a lion who had killed a hunter.”
SYNTAX OF VERBS.
188. Nothing is more common in Sanscrit syntax than for the verb to be omitted altogether, or supplied from the context. This is more especially the case with the copula, or substantive verb; thus, यावन् मेरुस्थिता देवा यावद् गङ्गा महीतले । चन्द्राको गगने यावत् Atac fanges art, “as long as the gods have existed in Meru, as long as the Ganges upon earth, as long as the sun and moon in the sky, so long have we (existed) in the family of Brahmans ";* Ofe: fusti, "discrimination (is) wisdom."
Nominative, Genitive, and Locative Absolute. 189. These cases are used absolutely with participles. minative is very rarely thus used ; as, सुहुन् मे समायातः पुण्यवान् अस्मि, “ my friend having arrived, I am happy.” The genitive more frequently; as, आपदाम् आपतन्तीनां, “calamities impending"; पश्यतां quui, “the men looking on.” The locative very commonly; as, afha utafa taifa ya afera fa gai," he living I live, he dying I die"; अवसन्नायां रात्रौ, “the night being ended '; असति उपायान्तरे, “there being no other expedient.” Sometimes the verb is omitted ; as, a T,“ the danger (being) distant." When the passive participle is thus used absolutely with a noun in the locative case, the present participle of we, “to be,” is often redundantly added; as, na n af,“ it being so done."
Hence it is evident that the genitive or locative absolute often takes the place of the particles, “when,"“while," "since," "although."
Nominative Case after the Verb. 190. Verbs signifying “to be," “ to become," “ to appear,"
* The writer of these pages is indebted for this couplet to Mr. Seton Karr, of the Bengal Civil Service. It is in the mouth of all the Kulīn Brahmans of Bengal, and is that on which they found their claim to precedence.