Imatges de pÓgina
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sake of examining the territory of one's enemies"; as, "this is the time युद्धे कालोsयं,

for battle”; तस्याम् अनुरागः, “affection for her"; उपदेशे अनादरः, “disregard for advice"; fa, "what anxiety about dying in battle?"

d. It is also used in giving the meaning of a root; as, 4 Juli, “the root grah is in taking," i.e. conveys the idea of "taking."

SYNTAX OF NOUNS OF TIME.

180. When reference is made to any particular division of time, the instrumental case is usually required; as, fan, "in three years"; fit ara:, “in twelve months"; wu, “in an instant"; fa, “in how long time"?, "in hundreds of years"; qu, “in process of time.”

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a. When, to duration of time, the accusative case is generally used; as,, “for a long time”; ¿, “for one month "; द्वौ मासौ, “ for two months "; वर्षशतं, “ for a hundred years"; शास्वती: HAT:, "to all eternity." The instrumental, however, is sometimes used in this sense also; as, fen, afif anfusi grat, कृत्वा, “having traded for twelve years"; fчfe:, "for a few days." कतिपय दिवसैः,

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b. When any particular period or epoch is referred to, the locative may be employed; as, afifere fedà, "on a certain day "; तृतीये दिवसे, on the third day;" or sometimes the accusative; as, यां रात्रिं ते दूताः प्रविशन्ति स्म पुरीं तां रात्रिं भरतेन स्वप्नो दृष्टः, “ on the night when the ambassadors entered the city, on that night a dream was seen by Bharata."

NOUNS OF PLACE AND DISTANCE.

181. Nouns expressive of distance between two places (according to Carey) may be in the nominative; as, कृष्णः शतं क्रोशाः सोमनाथात्, "Krishna is a hundred Kos from Somanāth." Space may also be expressed by the accusative; as, fuft:, "a hill for a Kos"; or agi by the instrumental; as, , "having gone for a Kos." The place in which any thing is done may be in the locative; as, faty, “in Vidarbha.”

SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES.

Accusative after the Adjective.

182. The only adjectives governing an accusative are those formed from desiderative bases; as, स्वगृहं जिगमिषुः, “ desirous of

going home "; पुत्रम् अभीप्सुः, "desirous of obtaining a son "; राजानं fey, "desirous of seeing the king."

Instrumental after the Adjective.

a. Adjectives or participles used adjectively, expressive of want or possession, require this case; as,

:,"destitute of wealth ''; अर्थैः समायुक्तः, “possessed of riches "; वारिणा पूणी घटः, a jar full of water.

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b. So also of "likeness" or "equality"; as, zem zik a अनेन सदृशो लोके न भूतो न भविष्यति, "there has never been, nor will there ever be, any one like him in this world"; zuen ai qi, “a crime equal to ब्रह्महत्या समं पापं, that of killing a Brahman "; प्राणै: समा पत्नी, a Brahman"; : 4 чt, “a wife as dear as life"; ferd ge:, "equal to the sun." These are also joined with a

genitive.

Genitive after the Adjective.

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183. Adjectives signifying “dear to," or the reverse, are joined with the genitive ; as, राज्ञां प्रिय:, “ dear to kings "; भर्त्तारः स्त्रीणां प्रियाः, “husbands are dear to women "; न कश्चित् स्त्रीणाम् अप्रियः, women dislike nobody "; द्वेष्यो भवति मन्त्रिणां “ he is detestable to his ministers."

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a. Adjectives expressive of equality often require this case as well as the instrumental; thus, :, "equal to all"; तस्य अनुरूपः, like him"; "like the moon"; de ge:

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,"nobody is equal to him.”

b. So also other adjectives; as, परोपदेश: सर्व्वेषां सुकरः नृणां, “giving advice to others is easy to all men"; सुखानाम् उचित:, “worthy of happiness"; उचित: क्लेशानां, ,"capable of toil."

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Locative after the Adjective.

184. Adjectives or participles used adjectively, expressive of "power or ability," are joined with this case; as, f Wai अश्वाः, “ horses able for the journey "; महति शत्रौ क्षमो राजा,

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who is a match for a great enemy "; अशक्ता गृहकरणे शक्ता गृहभञ्जने, unable to build a house, but able to demolish one."

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a. So also other adjectives; as, शस्त्रेषु कुशल:, “ skilled in arms"; अल्पेषु प्राज्ञः, “ wise in trifles"; त्वयि अनुरक्तो विरक्तो वा स्वामी, “ is your master attached or adverse to you?" aifay #ięc, “neglectful of his dependants.”

SYNTAX OF THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE Degree.

185. Adjectives in the comparative degree require the ablative case; as, mùaìsfa mâye, "a wife dearer even than one's life"; पुत्रस्पशात् सुखतरः स्पर्शो लोके न विद्यते, “ there is no pleasanter touch in this world than the touch of a son "; वर्द्धनात् प्रजा रक्षणं श्रेयः, "the protection of one's subjects is better than aggrandizement "; न मतो दुःखिततरः पुमान् अस्ति, " there is not a more wretched man than I"; fg out, “mind is more powerful than strength."

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a. Sometimes they govern the instrumental; as, m: funt:, “ dearer than life "; न अस्ति मया कश्चिद् अल्पभाग्यतरो भुवि, “ there is nobody upon earth more unfortunate than I."

b. When it is intended to express "the better of two things" the genitive may be used; as, terut: at fan we, "of these two countries which is the अनयोर् better?"

c. The comparative, in Sanscrit, is often resolved into the expression “ better and not "; as, वरं प्राणपरित्यागो न पुनर् ईदृशे कर्म्मणि uqfa:, “better abandon life than (literally, and not) engage in such an action "; वरं मौनं कार्य्यं न च वचनम् उक्तं यद् अनृतं, “ it is better that silence should be kept than a speech uttered which is untrue."

d. The superlative degree is usually joined with the genitive; as, ब्राह्मणो द्विपदां श्रेष्ठो गौर वरिष्ठा चतुष्पदां । गुरुर् गरीयसां श्रेष्ठः पुत्रः स्पर्शवतां , “a Brahman is the best of all bipeds, a cow of quadrupeds, a Guru of venerable things, a son of things possessed of touch"; but sometimes with the locative; as, “the most powerful of men"; and even with an ablative; as, i uge उत्तमः सर्व्वसङ्ग्रहात्, “ a store of grain is the best of all stores.

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e. Comparison is often expressed by an adjective in the positive degree, joined with a noun in the ablative case; as, if TE पुण्यवान्, "there is not a happier than he."

f. Many words are in their nature comparative and require an ablative case, especially वरं, अवरं, अन्य, अन्यदा, अन्यत्र, इतर, पर, अधिक, ऊन ; as, प्रक्षालनात् पक्कस्य अस्पर्शनं वरं, “ it is better not to touch mud than to wash it off"; दारिद्रम् अवरं मरणात्, “poverty is less desirable than death"; को मां मित्राद् अन्यस् त्रातुं समर्थ:, “who is able to rescue me, other than a friend ?” किन्नु दुःखम् अतः परं, "what grief is greater than this?"nıç are faquin, “one ought not to अन्यद् speak differently from what one has heard”; तत्कालाद् अन्यदा, “at another time

than the present"; नरस्य न अन्यत्र मरणाद् भयं, “there is no cause of fear to man from any other quarter than from death "; योजनशताद् अधिकं, “more than a hundred yojanas"; कान्तोदन्तः सङ्गमात् किञ्चिद् जन:, “intelligence of a lover is something less than a meeting."

g. Numerals if used partitively may take the genitive; as, agi ynaganfu, "a hundred thousand of the horses"; and, if comparatively, the ablative; as, विवादात् द्विगुणं दमं “a fine the double of that which is in dispute.”

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS.

186. The chief peculiarities in the syntax of pronouns have already been noticed in Chapter V., pp. 50-55. It remains to offer one or two remarks with reference more especially to the relative and interrogative.

a. In the use of these pronouns a very peculiar attraction is often to be observed; that is, when either a relative or interrogative pronoun has been used, and an indefinite pronoun would naturally be expected to follow, the relative or interrogative are repeated, as in the following examples: यो यस्य ( for कस्यचित्) भावः स्यात्, "whatever may be the disposition of whom (i.e. any one)"; रोचते यस्मै, “ whatever is pleasing to any one"; यस्य ये गुणाः afm, "whatever excellencies belong to any one";

ever corresponds with any thing "; केषां किं शास्त्रम् अध्ययनीयं, book is to be read by whom? (i.e. by any one)."*

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187. The relative and interrogative are sometimes used together in an indefinite distributive sense; as, fa fa fanfu, "any friends whatever "; or more usually with fa affixed to the interrogative; as,fen, "to any one whatever."

a. The neuter of the interrogative is often joined with the instrumental to signify "what is the use of?" "there is no need of"; as, श्रुतेन किं यो न धम्र्म्मम् आचरेत् किम् आत्मना यो न जितेन्द्रियो भवेत्, "of what use is scriptural knowledge (to one) who does not practice virtue, of what use is a soul (to one) whose passions are not kept in subjection?” fààà, "what business have you to make this inquiry?”

* See, on this subject, Bopp's Comp. Gram. (Prof. Eastwick's Translation), vol. ii. p. 537.

b. As already shewn (p. 166.), a relative pronoun is sometimes rendered unnecessary by the use of the relative compound ; thus, नगरी चन्द्रिका धौत ही is equi valent to नगरी यस्याश् चन्द्रिका धौतानि हम्याणि, “ a city whose palaces were silvered by the moon-beams." The relative, when followed by a pluperfect tense, may sometimes be expressed by the indeclinable participle; thus, सिंहो व्याधं हत्वा,

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a lion having killed a hunter," or a lion who had killed a hunter."

SYNTAX OF VERBS.

188. Nothing is more common in Sanscrit syntax than for the verb to be omitted altogether, or supplied from the context. This is more especially the case with the copula, or substantive verb; thus, यावन् मेरु स्थिता देवा यावद् गङ्गा महीतले । चन्द्राकै गगने यावत् तावद विप्रकुले वयं “ as long as the gods have existed in Meru, as fau long as the Ganges upon earth, as long as the sun and moon in the sky, so long have we (existed) in the family of Brahmans ";" ufteç: qfusri, “discrimination (is) wisdom."

Nominative, Genitive, and Locative Absolute.

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189. These cases are used absolutely with participles. The nominative is very rarely thus used; as, सुहृन् मे समायातः पुण्यवान् अस्मि "my friend having arrived, I am happy." The genitive more frequently ; as, आपदाम् आपतन्तीनां, “ calamities impending "; पश्यतां qui, "the men looking on." The locative very commonly; as, तस्मिन् जीवति जीवामि मृते तस्मिन् म्रिये पुन:, “ he living I live, he dying I die"; . अवसन्नायां रात्रौ, “ the night being ended "; असति उपायान्तरे, "there being no other expedient." Sometimes the verb is omitted; as,, "the danger (being) distant." When the passive participle is thus used absolutely with a noun in the locative case, the present participle of, "to be," is often redundantly added; as, तथा कृते सति, “ it being so done."

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Hence it is evident that the genitive or locative absolute often takes the place of the particles, "when," "while," "since," "although." Nominative Case after the Verb.

190. Verbs signifying "to be," "to become," "to appear,'

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* The writer of these pages is indebted for this couplet to Mr. Seton Karr, of the Bengal Civil Service. It is in the mouth of all the Kulin Brahmans of Bengal, and is that on which they found their claim to precedence.

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