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ber; as, नास्ति पुण्यवान् (तस्मात् understood) यस्म मित्रेण सम्भाषः, “ there is not a happier (than that man) of whom there is conversation with a friend "; vata fai o a caifa, “What is the use of wealth (to him) who does not give ?"

6. Sometimes, though rarely, the antecedent noun precedes the relative in the natural order ; as, न सा भार्या यस्यां भती न तुष्पति, “ She is not a wife in whom the husband does not take pleasure."

c. तावत् and यावत् stand to each other in the relation of demonstrative and relative; as, यावन्ति तस्य द्वीपस्य वस्तूनि तावनि अस्माकम् Juneqfa, “ As many products as belong to that island, so many are to be brought to us."

d. Similarly, तादृश and यादृश; as, यादृशं वृत्तं तादृशं तस्मै कथितवन्तः, “ As the event occurred, so they related it to him."

SYNTAX OF SUBSTANTIVES.

Under this head it is proposed to explain the construction of substantives, without reference to their connection with particular adjectives, verbs, or participles; and for this purpose it will be desirable to exhibit examples under each case.

Nominative Case. A substantive simply and absolutely expressed must be placed in the nominative case; as, featuag:, “the Hitopadesha "; fegatat, “the poem of Bhatti."

a. Two nominative cases in different numbers may be placed in apposition to each other; as, quia put, “grass as a bed.”

Accusative Case.

b. Substantives are not found in the accusative, unconnected with verbs or participles, except as expressing duration of time or space. See r. 180. 181.

Instrumental Case. 175. This case yields a variety of senses. The most usual is that of the instrument or means by which any thing is done ; as, HYT (5), “ by me it was said ”; (apist alfata:)," by the fowler

was laid "; agurta,“ by the study of the Vedas "; HT,“ with one's own eye.

a. It also has the force of “ with " in expressing other col

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lateral ideas; as, TOYHT FAST,“ vying with the strong "; fHTU HATT:, “conversation with a friend "; ugfar: HIATRI,“ equality with beasts "; fugaru,“ with the knowledge of (his) father "; especially when accompaniment is intended; as, furu ya, “the master with his pupil.”

6. The other senses yielded by this case are “ through," " by reason of ”; as, 2014, “through compassion "; a wala, “on account of that transgression." C. “

“According to,” “ by "; as, fafira, “according to rule "; HH Hwa, "according to my opinion "; AT, " by birth."

d. The “manner" in which any thing is done, as denoted in English by the adverbial affix ly, or by the prepositions in, at; as, veda, “in abundance "; vote, “virtuously "; 4,

1"at pleasure "; मुखेन, "at ease "; अनेन विधिना, “in this way"; महता area (faraha:), “ they both dwell together in great intimacy "; (74. arena wforrafa) astet,“ a king surpasses all beings in glory "; Halat (a chai), “such a deed must not even be imagined in the mind "; HTG4.10, "in human form."

e. Substantives expressive of “want,” “need,” may be joined with the instrumental of the thing wanted; as, to ratai,

there is no occasion for inquiry "; #77 gadta a tutti, “there is no need of me as a servant "; quero apreci,“ there is use for a straw."

f. The price for which any thing is done may be in the instrumental; as, पञ्चभिः पुगणैर् (याति दासत्व), " for five purānas he becomes a slave"; बहुभिर् दसैर् (garant), “ they fight for great rewards.” Similarly, sruufrumoreda (site of लभ्यते), “fortune is not obtained at the price of the sacrifice of life.”

g. So, also, difference between two things; as, Art Aco HEÇ Wari, , “there is great difference between you and the ocean.”

h. The English expression “under the idea that ” is expressed by the inst. case of the substantive बुद्धि ; as, व्याघ्र बुद्या, “ under the idea that he was a tiger."

Double Instrumental. i. Sometimes when two substantives come together, expressing parts of a common idea, they are both placed in the instrumental, instead of one in the genitive; as,

gran ate, “an odour is emitted by the bakul-plants by their flowers” (for वकुलानां पुष्पैः). Similarly, ताम् आश्वासयामास प्रेष्याभिश चन्दनोदकैः, “he caused her to revive by her attendants by sandal-water.”

Dative Case.

renown.'

176. This case is of very limited applicability, and its functions, irrespectively of the influence of verbs, are restricted to the expression of the object, motive, or cause for which any thing is done, or the result to which any act tends ; as, wla faça, “ for self-aggrandizement"; wracunara, “for the counteraction of calamity"; yra yfir, "arms and books (lead) to

When, as in the last example, the result or end to which any thing leads is denoted by this case, the verb is seldom expressed, but appears to be involved in the case itself. The following are other examples, यत्र आस्ते विष संसर्गों मृतं तदपि मृत्यवे, , “where there is admixture of poison, then even nectar (leads) to death "; TURUT TENTUI galera 7 ord, “advice to fools (leads) to irritation, not to conciliation; स वृद्धपतिम् तस्याः सन्तोषाय न अभवत्, " that old husband was not to her liking."

a. It will be seen hereafter that certain verbs of “giving” and “ relating,” govern the dative. Substantives derived from such verbs exercise a similar influence; as, Y ETI," the giving to another"; RH uri, “the telling to another.”

b. Words expressive of salutation or reverence are joined with the dative; as, TUNIT4 7H., “ reverence to Ganesha”; qui a, “health to thee."

Ablative Case. 177. The proper force of the ablative case is expressed by " from "; as, tanta (my: wafa), “from avarice anger arises "; fort: ani,“ falling from a mountain "; aroui qua, “from the mouth of the spies.”

a. Hence this case passes to the expression of various correlative ideas; as, wielog farfan, “a portion of (from) their food "; and like the instrumental it very commonly signifies “by reason of,” “in consequence of "; as, tagarut Ta, “on account of the slaughter of cows and men": अनवसरप्रवेशात् (पुत्रं निन्दति), "he blames his son for entering inopportunely "; çu.7418,“ through fear of punishment "; whye!G417,“ by reason of my good fortune."

b. “According to "; as, afeguata, “ according to the advice of the minister." Abstract nouns in a are often found in this case to express some of these ideas; as, wefenfi,“ by reason of the unsteadiness of his mind.” Especially in the

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writings of commentators; as, 74ATURTTI, “according to what will be said hereafter."

C. It also expresses “through the means or "instrumentality of "; as, TOTA Unagi, “caught in the toils through the instrumentality of the jackall''; न औषधपरिज्ञानाद् (व्याधेः शान्तिर् भवेत् ), “ the alleviation of disease is not effected by the mere knowledge of the medicine."

d. The “manner” in which any thing is done, is occasionally expressed by the ablative; as, यानात, “with diligence"; बलात्, “forcibly"; कुतूहलात्, wonder”; HOTG USKUT,“ tearing up by the roots”; or by the ablative affix TH; as, tel:, “at one's own pleasure” (cf. p. 152. a.).

e. This case also denotes “after"; as, pritfarmara, “after separation from the body"; मुख्य प्रतिबन्धनात्, “ after the imprisonment of the Chief"; तस्य आगमनात्, 66 since his arrival.”. f. In reference to time, “within”; as, faqat,“ within three fortnights.” g. Nouns expressive of fear are joined with the ablative of the thing feared ; as, , “ fear of death”; Tü, “fear of robbers.”

Genitive Case. 178. This and the locative case are of the most extensive application, and are often employed, in a vague and indeterminate manner, to express relations properly belonging to the other cases.

The true force of the genitive is equivalent to “of,” and this case appears most frequently when two substantives are to be connected, so as to present one idea ; as, fate an, “the speech of a friend "; et arat: a FAU, “the best ornament of a woman is her husband "; न नरस्य नरो दासो दासस् तु अर्थस्य, “ man is not the slave of man, but the slave of wealth.”

a. Possession is frequently expressed by the genitive case alone, without a verb ; as, सवाः सम्पनयस् तस्य सन्तुष्टं यस्य मानसं, “all riches belong to him who has a contented mind "; धन्योऽहं यस्य ईदृशी भाऱ्या, ' happy am I in possessing such a wife.”

6. It often, however, has the force of “to,” and is very generally used to supply the place of the dative; as, MIUT WITHGIT suptgr:, one's own life is dear to one's self"; a usar si ATETHICA, Taurat,

a hundred yojanas is not far to one borne away by thirst (of gain)"; fati Hana ufafert,“ what is unknown to the wise”? femme

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182.

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cases.

Rrufe ycia:, “what does a lamp show to a blind man"? foto 1797 weari ug:, “what offence have I committed towards the king"? farin w44 were :, “what can this man do to us?"

c. And not unfrequently of “in” or “on "; as, alui faula:, “confidence in women "; HH WAR, “dependence on me."

d. It is even equivalent occasionally to "from" or "by," as usually expressed by the ablative or instrumental; as, न कस्यापि (उपायनं गृह्णीयात्), " one ought not to accept a present from any one"; while (ani Fİ), “ the wood is to be abandoned by us”; # Van der for at for faget:, “he is blessed from whom suppliants do not depart in disappointment.”

e. Difference between two things is expressed by this case ; as, #24 #TRUITE HEÇ wi, “there is great difference between the master and the servant.” Cf.

p. Locative Case. 179. The locative, like the genitive, expresses the most diversified relations, and frequently usurps the functions of the other

Properly, it has the force of "in, on," or at," as expressive of many collateral and analogous ideas; thus, Tat,“ in the night "; TÀ,“ in the village "; yg, “on the back"; afa farra, “ confidence in you "; HE RECI afe,“ rain on desert ground "; 4947Turi, “at the first desire of eating "; great grant

gat:, tree planted in the earth.”

a. Hence it passes into the sense towards "; as, WAT TE a fat

* leniency towards an enemy as well as a friend”; neng cu, compassion towards all creatures "; genta:, “upright towards friends "; Tanah warg TĖ, “ a hundred good offices are thrown away upon the wicked."

b. Words signifying cause," “ motive,” or “need,” are joined with the locative; as, मत्रपत्वे हेतुः, “ the cause of his modesty"; भूपालयोर् विमहे भवद्वचनं निदानं, “your speech was the cause of the war between the two princes”; greuta: Hatred and fearet:, “the absence of a suitor is the cause of a woman's chastity”; pargi för grutti, “what need of a boat.” Also, words signifying employment or occupation; as, walia rafai, “engaging in the acquisition of wealth.” Words derived from the root yuj usually require the locative; as, HH 54. Carara Jutt:, “ I am of service in preserving the kingdom.”

c. This case may yield other senses equivalent to “by reason of," "for,” &c.; as, मे छिद्रेषु, “through my faults"; चारः परराष्ट्राणाम् अवलोकने, “a spy is for the

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