Imatges de pàgina

SWNTAx. 179

might almost be merged in that of compound words. The almost entire absence of prepositions in govermment with nouns removes one fertile source of difficulty ; and Such is the extraordinary prevalence of compounds, that the student who has acguired a thorough insight into their formation has little else to learn, and the writer who has properly expounded this portion of the grammar has already more than half completed his investigation into the laws which regulate syntactical combinations. We shall endeavour, in the present chapter, to collect together all the most useful rules for the connection and collocation of uncompounded words, preSupposing, as we have done throughout, that the student is ac५uainted with the general principles of the subject before us. Much vagueness and uncertainty, however, may be expected to attach to the rules propounded, when it is remembered that Sanscrit literature consists almost entirely of poetry, and that the laws of Syntax are ever prone to yield to the necessities of metrical composition. Observe, in the present chapter on Syntax, that the Subject may be made as clear as possible, each word will be Separated from the next, and vowels will not be allowed to coalesce, although such coalition be reguired by the laws of combination. Whenever compounds are introduced into the examples, a dot, placed underneath, will mark the division of the words. The examples have been, in general, selected from the Hitopadesha, or the Mahābhārata, with the view of serving as an easy delectus, in which the beginner may exercise himself before passing to continuous translation.

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b. Sometimes, when it is placed between two or more nominative cases, it agrees

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c. Wery often the copula, or verb which connects the subject with the predicate, is omitted ; when, if an adjective stand in the place of the verb, it will follow the rules of concord in gender and number ; aS, धनं ढुलैर्भ, “ wealth is difficult of attainment '; अ'ावां कृताहारौ, “ we two have finished eating.” But if a substantive stand in the place of the verb, no concord of gender or number need take place ; as, सम्पदः पदम् आपदां, “ successes are the road to misfortunes."

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l74 The Relative must agree with the antecedent noun in gender, number, and person ; but, in Sanscrit, the relative pronoun almost invariably precedes the noun to which it refers, and this noun is then put in the Same case with the relative, and the pronoun स: generally follows in the latter clause of the sentence ; as, यस्य नरस्य बुद्धिः स बलवान्, “ of whatever man there is intellect, he is strong.' The noun referred to by the relative may also be joined with स: , aS, यस्य बुडिः स नरो बलवान्; or may be omitted altogether, as, यत् प्रतिज्ञातं तत् पालय, “ What you have promised, that abide by"; येषाम् अपत्यानि खादितानि ते: (पििभ:, understood) जिज्ञासा समारञ्चा, “ By those (birds) whose young ones were devoured, an inguiry was set On foot.'

। d. The Relative Sometimes Stands alone, an antecedent noun or pronoun being understood, from which it takes its gender and num

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SYNTAx OR SUBSTANTIWES. Under this head it is proposed to explain the construction of Substantives, without reference to their connection with particular adjectives, verbs, or participles ; and for this purpose it will be desirable to exhibit examples under each case.

IWomimatice Case.

A substantive simply and absolutely expressed must be placed in the nominative case ; as, हितोपदेश:, " the Hitopadesha ''; भट्टिकाव्यं, “ the poem of Bhatti.'

a. Two nominative cases in different numbers may be placed in apposition to each other ; as, तृणानि शय्या, “ grass as a bed."

4ccusatige Case. ८). Substantives are not found in the accusative, unconnected

with verbs or participles, except as expressing duration of time or Space. See r. l80. l8l.

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a. It also has the force of “ with " in expressing other col

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.f: The price for which any thing is done may be in the instrumental ; as,

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D0uble Instrumentu८. ā. Sometimes when two substantives come together, expressing parts of a common

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her to rewive by her attendants by sandal-water.''

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case to express some of these ideas; as, सनवस्थितविक्तत्वात्, “ by reason of the unsteadiness of his mind.' Especially in the

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