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RULE A.- WHEN Is wISARGAH OR FINAL h UNCHANGED?
24. a. Before K, p (and their aspirates), and before the sibilants स् &, श sh. 0. Before a pause, i. e. at the end of a Sentence, or when a word stands by itself.
25. a. Before ८ (and its aspirate) it is changed to the dental sibilant स् s ; before ch (and its aspirate), to the palatal sibilant शम् ४/.* ८. Also in some books, before the sibilants सं, शा, Wisargah is allowed to aSSimilate with these letters.
RULE C.-WHEN IS wISARGAH CHANGED To o?
26. d. Final a/% is changed to o before all Sonant consonants. ८. Also before short a (this a being then cut off),
RULE D.-wHEN IS wISARGAH CHANGED TO r?
27. a, II, /, ah, āh, el), aih, oh, aul, before any somant (consonant or vowel), change the final h to r ; ८. Unless r itself be the sonant following, in which case, to avoid the coalition of two r's, final / is dropped, and the vowel preceding it (if short) is lengthened.
RULE B.-WHEN Is wISARGAH DROPPED ALTOGETHER?
28. a. Final a/), before any other vowel except short a, drops the Wisargah, and leaves the remaining a opening on the initial vowel of the next word without coalition.f ८. Final ah, before any sonant (consonant or vowel), drops the Wisargah ; and, if the initial letter of the next word be a vowel, the remaining a is allowed to open upon it without coalition.
00MBINATION 0F 00NSONANTS.
In the following Table the nominative cases Narah, “ a man," JWarāh, “ men,' and Hari/, “ Wishnu," joined with verbs, illustrate these rules at One view.
29. The rules for the changes of Wisargah apply egually to ThuS, ?mdmas hara becomes ?mamohara (as in C. d.); and chaks/us gishdyd, chakshadr gis/idya (as in D. a) ;* and chedas, standing alone, is written cheta/ (A. B.)
* In a few compound words a final sibilant takes the cerebral form beforo k, as prādus kritu become prāduglikrita. with krdnta, mi.Jakrinta ; with putra, nishputra. See also r. 42, 48, and 181. I.
Similarly, a final r bofore k or ;) : as, mir
30. स् s is changed to म् sh when any other vowel except a or ā immediately precedes in the Same word. Thus, Ghagasi, “ thou art "; but Karoshi, not Karosi, “ thou doest."*
CHANGES OR FINAL ?”,
31. Again, rules A, B, D, apply egually to final r. Thus, prātar kāla becomes prāta/ Kala ; prādar chd, prātas/ chd ; and the preposition mir before akta remains unchanged, and before rasa is changed to m7; thus, ?mirukta, nirasa.
32. But final ar, unlike ah, remains unchanged before any sonant (consonant or vowel); as, prātar āsha : and before the SOnant r itself, drops the r and lengthens the preceding a ; as, ;pumdr rakshati becomes pumā rakshati.
33. It is to be observed further of r, that it may optionally double any consonant (except ह्) that immediately follows it. Thus, निर् दय।
Hence it appears that the symbol Wisargah (:) may be considered as much a representative of final s and r, when these letters are imperceptible, as of final /. Indeed, all those inflections of nouns and persons of verbs which are said to end in Wisargah, might be said to end in s ; Only that, in Such cases, the s is silent, or pronounced with an imperceptible breathing, as in the French Ves, or the English, island, piscount. So again, in many French words, Such as parler, the final r is silent; and in some English, such as card, the Sound of r is very indistinct ; and in all these cases, s and r would be represented in Sanscrit by Wisargah (ले: पालॆ: &c.),
The following Table exhibits the more common combinations of consonants at one view. Observe, that in the top line of initial letters the aspirated consonants have been omitted, because it is am universal rule, that whatever change takes place before any consonant, the same holds good before its aspirate. Final s has also been omitted, as undergoing precisely the same changes with. final /.
* Also when k precedes : as, cid with &u is ritsw ; but Dhuk, lhukshu. Cf. r. II2. c.
ON SANSCRIT ROOTS, AND THE CRUDE FORM OF NOUNS.
35. Before treating of Sanscrit nouns, it will be advisable to point out in what respect the peculiar System adopted in their formation reguires an arrangement of the subject different from that to which we are accustomed in other languages.
In Sanscrit nouns, then, there is this great peculiarity, that every one of them has two distinct states prior to the formation of the nominative case : wiZ. Ist, a root ; 2dly, a crude form, coming from this root. _
In the first place, therefore, let us inguire, what is the root. There are, in Sanscrit, a number of monosyllabic Sounds, which are called roots. These are mere artificial inventions, having only an ideal existence ; mere blocks, So to speak, of themselves guite useless;* from which, however, are carved out and fashioned all the varieties of nouns and verbs which exist in the language. Every one of these roots conveys some simple idea, which appears under different mOdifications in the derivatives from it. Thus, to mention a few of the most common : the root kship conveys the idea of “ throwing "; Kri of “ doing," “ making "; hri of. “ seiZing'; /agj, “ joining"; as, prit, “ being "; bhā, “ becoming '; .jZo, “ living '; ???, “ leading '; ji, “ conguering '; gam, Gyā, char, Kram, i, &ri, “ going "; gad, cac/, Grā, “ speaking "; bud/, ८yā (ज्ञा), “ knowing "; drish (दृश्), "seeing "; i8/, kam, “ wishing "; miri, “ dying "; da, “giving"; jan, “ producing "; dhā, “ placing "; ad, bhaks/, bhaj, “ eating '; pā, " drinking "; pach, " cooking '; hdia, “ killing"; pat, “ falling"; bas, “ dwelling "; oish (विश्), “ entering "; st/ia, “ standing "; shra (श्रु), “ hearing "; sprish (स्पृशा), “ touching "; sid/, sād/, “ accomplishing ''; Krā (क्री), “ buying "; Kaop, kraddh, "being
* Except in a few cases, where they are used by themselves as nouns.