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* The final i of the prepositions, प्रति, परेि, नि, is optionally lengthened in forming certain nouns; as, प्रतीकारं, परीहास, नौकाग्.
l67. In conjugating compound verbs formed with prepositions, the augment and reduplication do not change their position, but are inserted between the preposition and the root ,* as, पयैणयं , lst pret. of नी, with परि; उपाविशं, Ist pret. of विशा, with उप ; चन्वतिष्ठं, 1st pret. of स्या, with चनु ; प्रतिजघान, 2d pret. of हन्, with प्रति ; प्रोज्जहार्, 2d pret. of ड्, with प्र and उत्.
168. Grammarians restrict certain roots to particular voices, when in combination with particular prepositions ; as, for example, the root जि, “ to conguer," with वि, and the root विश्, “ to enter,'' with नि, are restricted to the ātmanepada ; but no certain rules can be propounded on this Subject : and in the two epic poems especially, the choice of voice seems so entirely arbitrary and subservient to the purposes of metre, that many ātmanepada primitive, and even passive verbs, are occasionally permitted to take a paraSmaipada inflection.f
Compound Perbs formed 'y combining 4duerbs icith the Roots कृ and भू.
169. These are of two kinds ; Ist, those formed by combining adverbs with कृ and भू; 2dly, those formed by combining nouns used adverbially with these roots. Examples of the first kind are, :, “ to adorn '; स्राविष्कृ, “ to make manifest " (cf note, p. l5.);
* There are a few exceptions to this rule in the Mahābhārata; as in अन्वसच्चरत् (Prof. Johnson's Ed. p. 83.).
f Thus, यत् , * to striwe,'' and प्रायै , “ to beg for,” which are properly ātmanepada verbs, are found in the paras. Instances of passive verbs have been given at p. 89. notef. On the other hand, नन्द्, “ to rejoice,” which is properly a parasmaipada verb, is found in the atm.
l71. Compound adverbs are formed by combining adverbs, prepositions, or adverbial prefixes with nouns in the singular number neuter gender.
८. The greater number are formed with the adverbial preposition सह 8aha, Contracted into स 8a ; as, from कोप, “ anger," सकोपं, “ angrily '; from स्रादर, “ respect,'' सादरं, “ respectfully " ; from अष्टाङ्गपात, “ prostration of the limbs,' साष्टाङ्गपातं, “ reverentially.' AS, however, the neuter of all adjectives may be used adverbially, these compound adverbs may be regarded as the neuter of the fifth form of relative compounds (r. I6I.),
८. The following may be taken as examples of compound adverbs formed with other prefixes: अनुज्येष्ठं, “according to seniority'; प्रत्यूङ्गं, “ over every limb "; प्रतिमासं, “ every month "; ययाविधि, “ ac
distinction.'' c. Some of the adverbs at r. l39. may be placed after crude
nouns ; thus, बालकसमीपं, “ near the child "; रक्ार्थं, “ for the sake
of protection.'' d, A kind of compound adverb is formed by doubling a noun,
lengthening the final of the first word, and changing the final of
the last to i ; as, from दण्ड, “ a stick,'' दण्डादण्डि, “ mutual striking.'
STRIwE as we may, it is impossible to free the orthographical and etymological part of Sanscrit Grammar from a certain degree of intricacy and complexity. But admitting, as we do, this complexity in the early part of the subject to be greater than is ordinarily found, we at the same time affirm, that, in the aggregate calculation, the preponderance of difficulty is on the side of the classical languages. When the student has once thoroughly mastered the rules relating to the combination of letters and the inflection of nouns and verbs, the path, in Sanscrit, becomes easy to him, and he passes with the utmost certainty to a complete ac५uaintance with the subject in all its bearings. Not So in Greek or Latin. At the point in Sanscrit where our labours end, at that point in the others do our real labours begin ; and the young Scholar, however versed in the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs, finds, when he enters upon the syntax of these two languages, that he has hardly passed the threshold of his studies. It is in the syntax of Greek and Latin that the true test of ScholarShip lies. It is here that an almost interminable field of inguiry opens before the grammarian, and difficulties assail the student, demanding, for their complete mastery, a more than ordinary degree of mental application and capacity. In Sanscrit, on the other hand, the subject of syntax is reducible to a few plain rules, and