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b. But the greater number of complex compounds are used relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sentence; as, गलितः नखनयनः, -नी, -नं, “whose teeth and eyes were decayed,” the whole being the relative form of descriptive, involving an aggregative; शुक्लमाल्यानुलेपनः, -ना, -नं, “having a white garland and unguents," the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive; :, -, -, "done in a former birth,” gårn, the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving a descriptive; farqe:, -s, -i, “advanced in learning and age," the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; fun equì gia:, -an, -, “having fresh garlands, and being free from dust," the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive and dependent; fàays fau:, -:, -, "whose head was moist with unction."

सादि,

c. The substantive wife, "a beginning," often occurs in complex relative compounds, as in simple relatives (r. 157. b.); thus, 4,"parrots, starlings, &c." (agreeing with fau:, "birds beginning with parrots and starlings"), the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; ffquefe, “peace, war, &c.” (agreeing with पूब्वोक्तं understood); गृहदेवागारादियुक्तः, -क्ता, -,"possessed of houses, temples, &c." Similarly, in the example : (agreeing with :, "garlands possessing the best odour and other qualities").

d. Long complex compounds may be generally translated by beginning at the last word and proceeding regularly backwards; as in the following a f मुक्तझङ्कार, मिलितकोकिलालाप, सङ्गीतक सुखावहः, -हा, -हं, “causing pleasure by the music of the voice of the cuckoo, blended with the hum emitted by the swarms of joyous bees."

conr

e. WING or Y, as occupying the last place in a complex relative, denote " posed of”; thus, हस्त्यश्वरथपदातिकर्मकरात्मकं बलं, “a force consisting of elephants, horses, chariots, infantry, and servants"; e con boin & out, “the two actions consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth."

Certain Anomalous Compounds.

f. There are certain compounds which are too anomalous in their formation to admit of ready classification under any one of the preceding heads. Amongst these may be placed those compounds

expressive of comparison or likeness, usually included under the Karmadharaya or Descriptive class. In these the adjective is placed last; as, qu, -, -¿, “fickle as a shadow"; फेनोपम:, - मा, मं, " like foam"; असुदश्याम:, - मा, मं, “darkasa cloud"; featu:, -i, -, “spread out like a mountain"; जलविन्दु,लोलचपलः, -ला, -लं, “unsteady as a trembling drop of water"; नलिनीदलतोय. तरलः, -ला, -लं, “ tremulous as water on the leaf of a lotus"; the last two examples are complex.

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g. There is a common anomalous compound formed by placing after another word, to express "another," "other"; as, स्थानान्तरं, “ another place"; राजान्तरेण सह, “ along with another king "; fu, "other births." The following examples, also, are not readily assignable to any class: fat, "a fighter who abandons all idea of life"; fan:, -, -, “accompanied by the सारस द्वितीयः, -या, Sārasa";* ., "never before seen."

Compound Nouns formed from Roots combined with Prepositions.

163. In the next section it will be shewn that the combination of roots with prepositions prevails most extensively in Sanscrit. From roots thus combined nouns of the most various significations may be formed; thus, from , "to seize," with fa and wa, is formed, "practice," from , "to do," with, gate, कॄ, "imitation." Hardly a line can occur in any book that does not afford an example of this kind of compound.

SECT. II.-COMPOUND VERBS.

164. The learner might look over the list of 1900 simple roots, and very well imagine that in some of these would be contained every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root would be unnecessary. But the real fact is, that there are comparatively very few Sanscrit roots in common use; and that whilst those that are so appear in a multitude of different forms by the prefixing of one or two or even three prepositions, the remainder

* Soft: in Nala, translated by Bopp, umbra geminatus.

are quite useless for any practical purposes, except the formation

of nouns.

Hence it is that compound verbs are of more frequent occurrence than simple ones. They are formed in two ways: 1st, by combining roots with prepositions; 2dly, by combining the auxiliaries कृ. to do," and, "to be," with adverbs, or nouns con

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verted into adverbs.

Compound Verbs formed by combining Prepositions with Roots.

165. The following list exhibits the prepositions chiefly used in combination with roots:

fa ati, "across," "beyond"; as, f
by," "transgress" (pres. wf, &c. p.
fadhi, "above," "upon," "over "; as,
"preside" (p. 107. pres. fufifa);
fit, "to lie upon" (p. 113.); f,
(p. 107.);

(p. 112.); t, "to pass 112.).

f, "to stand over,"

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"to climb upon "; "to go over towards"

f, "to go over" in the sense of "reading" (p. 113.). anu, “after”; as, , "to follow "; we, "to follow," in the sense of "performing "; 1, "to imitate" (p. 102.); "to assent."

अनुकृ,

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gan,

con

antar, "within "(cf. inter); as,, “to place within,' ceal" (p. 119.), in pass. "to vanish";, "to be within" (p. 104.); "to walk in the midst" (r. 31.).

अप apa, “ off,” “ away ” (cf. ànd); as, अपगम्, अपसृ, अपे (from अप and, p. 112.), "to go away";, "to lead away"; wq, "to abstract"; "to bear away." It also implies detrac

quae,
'to defame."

tion ; as, अपवद्, fa api, "on," ," "over," only used with shut up"; fq, "to bind on." rejected, leaving पिधा, पिनह्.

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and ; as, fun, "to The initial a is generally

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fabhi, "to," "towards" (ef. ènì); as, fr, f, "to go towards"; fry, "to run towards ";, “to behold (p. 107.); for, "to address," salute."

अव

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ava, "down," “ off"; as, अवरुह्, अवतृ, “to descend "; अवेक्ष, "to look down"; "to throw down," "scatter"; अवकॄ,

"to cut off." It also implies disparagement; as, despise " (p. 123.); wafa, "to insult " (p. 111.).

अवकृत्,

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fa, "to enter "; When pre

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आक्रम्, आरुह्,
"to go towards"; "to mount up."

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fixed to and ч, "to go," and, "to give," it reverses the गम् या, action; as, "to come "; T," to take." With चर्, "to practise."

Jut, "up, उत्

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"to root When prefixed

“to stand up."

In

upwards" (opposed to fa); as, a (r. 16.), 3fę, "to go up," "rise" (pres. f, 1st conj.); t, "to fly up "; उद्धृ (उत् and हृ, r. 18.), “ to extract"; उन्मिष् and उन्मील् (r. 15.), "to open the eyes"; "to cut up"; उत्कृत्, उच्छिद, उन्मूल्, up"; f, "to lift up" (and f, r. 17.). to it causes the elision of 8; as, some cases it reverses the action; as, from 7, "to fall,” "to leap up"; from, "to bend "to raise up"; from 4, "to keep down," upa, "to," "towards" (f. úπò), joined like of motion; as, 4, "to approach ";, "to wait upon," with fast, "to sit down."

down," Jaq (c. 15.),

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and

"to lift up.'
for to roots

fani, "down," "downwards," "under" (opposed to); as, fun to fall down"; नियम्, “ to suppress ; निमिष् and निमील्, “to close the eyes"; fafarq, fau, we, "to lay down," "deposit "; निधा, न्यस्, fafas, "to go within," " encamp."

return," "desist "; with

With

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not alter the sense; as, f, "to kill."

वृत् it signifies "to

In some cases it does

fa nir, “out”; as, f (cf. note, p. 15.), faña, fa:ą (r. 31.), “to go out"; fan, "to cut up"; fa, "to come to an end," With f," to determine."

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ч parā, “back," "backwards" (cf. πapa), combined with f and in the sense of "defeat "; as, quf, “to overcome (cf. παραVIKάw, Æsch. Chöe.); quy, "to be defeated.” When joined with , 2d conj., it signifies "to retire towards" (pres. f); when with, 1st conj. ātm., "to run away," "to retreat," r being changed to (pres. 4).

परि

ft pari, "around" (cf. Tepí, per); as, round"; f, f, "to go round";

“examine"; ufiq, “to turn round"; परिवृत्,

aftag, afiq, "to surपरिवेष्ट्, परिवृ, q, "to look round,"

fq, "to run round."

When prefixed to it signifies "to adorn,” and ■ is inserted,

uft. With "to despise," and with, "to avoid." It someपरिष्कृ.

भू,

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times merely gives intensity to the action; as, uf, “to abandon altogether."

pra, "before," "forward" (cf. Tро, prо, pra); as,,, “to proceed";, "to set before," "present"; ", “to begin "; ,"to run forward"; "to set out," advance"; L, "to be superior," "prevail"; "to foresee.' With लभ,

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In combination with the causal of 4, it drops

इष्,

fag, "to

its final a; as, fя, "I send." The influences a following nasal by r. 21.; as, ru, "to bend before," "salute." f" prati, "against," "towards," "back again "; as, fight against"; ut, "to go towards" (pres. f); return"; faq, "to counteract"; f, "to beat back,"

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fan, “to

“ repel"; प्रतिवच्, “ to answer "; प्रतिलभ् “ to recover "; प्रतिनी, "to lead back"; "to re-salute." With," to promise";

with, "to arrive at," "obtain."

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fa vi, "apart," implying "separation," "distinction," "distribution," dispersion" (Latin dis, se); as, fa, "to wander about "; faam, “to vacillate"; fa, "to roam for pleasure"; faq, “to dissipate"; fq, "to tear asunder"; far, "to divide "; fafa, "to distinguish.' Sometimes it gives a privative signification; as, fag, "to disunite"; fa, "to forget"; fa, "to sell." With, "to change for the worse. Sometimes it has no apparent influence on the root; as, fa, "to perish." sam, “with,” “together with" (ovv, con); as, af, uye, collect"; "to join together"; 4, "to meet together "; सम्पद्, ,"to happen"; f, "to contract." With कृ it signifies

"to perfect," and is inserted, without altering the sense; as,

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सङ्ग्रह्, "to

. It is often prefixed to be produced."

166. Two prepositions are often combined with a root; as,, "to open" (fa, );, "to assemble" (,, with root); ufu, “to prostrate one's self" (, fa, r. 21.); m, “to raise up (,, with root ₹).

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Occasionally three prepositions are combined; as, “to predict" (п, fa, ); uger, "to answer" (ufa, उत्, IT).

The final of the prepositions, fa, qft, fa, is optionally lengthened in forming certain nouns; as, प्रतीकार, परीहास, नीकार.

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