Imatges de pÓgina


b. But the greater number of complex compounds are used relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sentence; as, गलितः नखनयनः, नी, नं, " whose teeth and eyes were decayed,” the whole being the relative form of descriptive, involving an aggregative; galegoчa:, -a, -Ħ, “having a white garland and unguents," the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive; :, -, -, “done in a former birth,”

the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving a descriptive; farge:, -, -, “advanced in learning and age,' the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; façaqsigia:, -an, -4, "having fresh garlands, and being free from dust," the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive and dependent; fàays faru:, -, -, "whose head was moist with unction."

c. The substantive wife, "a beginning," often occurs in complex relative compounds, as in simple relatives (r. 157. b.); thus,

f4,"parrots, starlings, &c." (agreeing with fu:, "birds beginning with parrots and starlings"), the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; fufauife, “peace, war, &c.” (agreeing with पूर्व्वोक्तं understood); गृहदेवागारादियुक्तः, -क्ता, - क्लं, possessed of houses, temples, &c." Similarly, in the example उत्तमगन्धाद्या: (agreeing with सज:, “ garlands possessing the best odour and other qualities ").



d. Long complex compounds may be generally translated by beginning at the last word and proceeding regularly backwards; as in the following a f मुक्तककार मिलितको किलालाप, सङ्गीतक सुखावहः, -हा, -हं, “causing pleasure by the music of the voice of the cuckoo, blended with the hum emitted by the swarms of joyous bees."


e. I or y, as occupying the last place in a complex relative, denote " posed of”; thus, हस्त्यश्वरथपदातिकमैकरात्मकं बलं, “a force consisting of elephants, horses, chariots, infantry, and servants";

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actions consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth."

Certain Anomalous Compounds.

f. There are certain compounds which are too anomalous in their formation to admit of ready classification under any one of the preceding heads. Amongst these may be placed those compounds



expressive of comparison or likeness, usually included under the Karmadharaya or Descriptive class. In these the adjective is placed last; as,:, -, -, “ fickle as a shadow "; फेनोपमः, -मा, -मं, “ like foam"; असुदश्यामः, -मा, -मं, “darkas cloud "; भूधर विस्तीर्णः, -णी, -, spread out like a mountain "; Go fargologue, -, -, “unsteady as a trembling drop of water"; नलिनीदलतोय तरल:, -ला, -लं, “ tremulous as water on the leaf of a lotus"; the last two examples are complex.



g. There is a common anomalous compound formed by placing after another word, to express "another," "other"; as,

, “another place";, “along with another king "; uf, “other births." The following examples, also, are not readily assignable to any class: fan, “a fighter who abandons all idea of life"; fa:, -, -, “accompanied by the Sārasa";*., "never before seen."

Compound Nouns formed from Roots combined with Prepositions.

163. In the next section it will be shewn that the combination of roots with prepositions prevails most extensively in Sanscrit. From roots thus combined nouns of the most various significations may be formed; thus, from, "to seize," with fa and a, is formed, "practice," from, "to do," with,, “imitation.” Hardly a line can occur in any book that does not afford an example of this kind of compound.


164. The learner might look over the list of 1900 simple roots, and very well imagine that in some of these would be contained every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root would be unnecessary. But the real fact is, that there are comparatively very few Sanscrit roots in common use; and that whilst those that are so appear in a multitude of different forms by the prefixing of one or two or even three prepositions, the remainder

* Soft: in Nala, translated by Bopp, umbra geminatus.

are quite useless for any practical purposes, except the formation

of nouns.

Hence it is that compound verbs are of more frequent occurrence than simple ones. They are formed in two ways: 1st, by combining roots with prepositions; 2dly, by combining the auxiliaries, “to do," and, "to be," with adverbs, or nouns converted into adverbs.

Compound Verbs formed by combining Prepositions with Roots.

165. The following list exhibits the prepositions chiefly used in combination with roots:


अति atis across," "beyond "; as, f (p. 112.);, "to pass by," transgress" (pres.


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f, &c. p. 112.).

fadhi, "above," upon," "over"; as, f, "to stand over," 'preside" (p. 107. pres. afufaeifa); f, "to climb upon "; fit, "to lie upon" (p. 113.); f, "to go over towards" (p. 107.); , "to go over" in the sense of "reading" (p. 113.). अनु amu, "after"; as, g, "to follow "; 1, "to follow," in the sense of "performing "; , "to imitate" (p. 102.); agaq,


"to assent.'


antar, “within "(cf. inter); as, , "to place within," "conceal" (p. 119.), in pass. "to vanish", "to be within" (p. 104.);, "to walk in the midst" (r. 31.).

अप apa, “ off,” “ away" (cf. ànd); as, अपगम्, अपसृ, अपे (from अप and, p. 112.), "to go away"; ut, "to lead away";

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It also implies detrac

and ; as, fq, “to The initial a is generally

fru, f, "to go towi,

wards"; for, "to run towards ";, "to behold" for, "to address," salute.'

(p. 107.);




अब ava, “ down,” “ off"; as, अवरुह्, अवतृ, off"; as, अवरुह्, अवतृ, “ to descend "; अवेक्ष, "to look down"; "to throw down," "scatter";ean, "to cut off." It also implies disparagement; as, , "to despise " (p. 123.); wafa, "to insult " (p. 111.).

Tā, "to,

งา 66

towards," "up" (Latin ad); as,

चक्रम्, "to go towards";, "to mount

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fixed to л and π, “to go,” and π, “to give,” it reverses the action; as, आगम्, आया, “to come "; आदा, to take." With

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उत् ut,



up,” “upwards" (opposed to fa); as, J

"to go up," "rise" (pres.

उद्धृ (उत् and हृ, r. 18.), “ to

4, 1st conj.);

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extract"; उन्मिष् and उन्मील् (r. 15.), f, "to cut up";

"to open the eyes"; e,
up"; f, "to lift up" (and f, r. 17.).


"to root When prefixed

to स्था it causes the elision of s; as, उत्था, 'to stand up." In some cases it reverses the action; as, from,“to fall,”

,"to leap up"; from ,"to bend down," Jay (c. 15.), "to raise up"; from 4, "to keep down,", "to lift up." Tupa, "to," "towards" (f. vπò), joined like and for to roots

of motion; as, 41, "to approach";

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"to wait upon,"

fa ni, "down," "downwards,' ""under" (opposed to); as, faun


“ to fall down"; नियम्, “ to suppress "; निमिष् and निमील्, “to close the eyes"; fafaq, fau, zq, "to lay down," "deposit "; निविश्, fafas, "to go within," "encamp." With वृत् it signifies "to return," "desist "; with, “to hear."

not alter the sense; as, fЯ, "to kill.”

fanir, "out"; as, f

In some cases it does

(cf. note, p. 15.), faña, fa:ą (r. 31.), “to go out"; fasi, “to cut up"; fa, "to come to an end," 99 cease.' With f, "to determine."

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parā, "back," "backwards" (cf. Taрa), combined with f and in the sense of “defeat "; as, чuf, "to overcome " (cf. τаρаvikάw, Æsch. Chöe.); ч, "to be defeated." When joined with , 2d conj., it signifies "to retire towards" (pres. f); when with, 1st conj. atm., "to run away," "to retreat," r being changed to (pres. ч4).

qft pari, "around" (cf. Teрí, per);


round"; af, f, "to go round";
"examine"; ft, "to turn round";


परिवेष्ट्, परिवृ, “ to sur

, "to look round," fq, "to run round."

When prefixed to it signifies “to adorn," and

is inserted,

uft. With "to despise," and with," to avoid." It someपरिष्कृ


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times merely gives intensity to the action; as, as, “to परित्यज्, abandon altogether."


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pra, "before," "forward" (cf. πpo, pro, pra); as, я, ¶, “to proceed"; "to set before," "present"; ", "to begin "; प्रधाव्, “ to run forward ; प्रस्था, to set out," advance"; I, "to be superior," "prevail"; "to foresee."

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With लभ,

In combination with the causal of 4,
इष्, it drops
f, “I send.”


The r influences a following

, "to bend before," "salute."


fa* prati, "against," "towards," "back again"; as, ung, “to fight against";, "to go towards " (pres. f); f प्रतिगम्, to fg, "to counteract "; af, "to beat back,"






' repel"; प्रतिवच्, “ to answer "; प्रतिलभ् “ to recover "; प्रतिनी, "to lead back"; ","to re-salute." With, "to promise"; प्रतिनन्द, with पद्, to arrive at, obtain."

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dispersion" (Latin dis, se); as, fa, "to wander about "; faam, "to vacillate"; fa, "to roam for pleasure"; faq, "to dissipate"; विदृ, “ to tear asunder "; विभज्, “ to divide"; विविच्, “to distinguish." Sometimes it gives a privative signification; as, fag, "to disunite "; fa, "to forget"; fat, "to sell." With कृ, "to change for the worse." Sometimes it has no apparent influence on the root; as, fa, "to perish.” sam, "with," together with" (ovv, con); as, fa, aye, collect"; "to join together";

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सम्पद्, "to happen"; fq, "to contract.' With FF it signifies "to perfect," and is inserted, . It is often prefixed without altering the sense; as, , "to be produced."


166. Two prepositions are often combined with a root; as, ie, "to open" (fa, );,"to assemble" (,, with root ); प्रणिपत्, “ to prostrate one's self” (प्र, नि, r. 21.) ; प्रोडू, “ to raise up" (,, with root ). उत्,

Occasionally three prepositions are combined; as, “to predict” (प्र, वि, आ ); प्रत्युदाह, “ to answer" (प्रति, उत्, IT).

* The final of the prepositions, fa, qft, fa, is optionally lengthened in forming certain nouns ; as, प्रतीकार, परीहास, नीकार.

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