Imatges de pàgina
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b. But the greater number of complex compounds are used relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sentence; as, forrera:, -- --, “whose teeth and eyes were decayed,” the whole being the relative form of descriptive, involving an aggregative; parleurgroun:, -71, --, “having a white garland and unguents," the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive ; . TH.:, - , -**, “ done in a former birth,” the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving a descriptive; faenauli, -37, , “advanced in learning and age," the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; Efun.hasilsta:, -at, -, “having fresh garlands, and being free from dust,” the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive and dependent; uforaag.fsta: , -T, -, “whose head was moist with unction.

c. The substantive wife, “a beginning," often occurs in complex relative compounds, as in simple relatives (r. 157. 6.); thus, anufacu:, “parrots, starlings, &c." (agreeing with ufur:, “ birds beginning with parrots and starlings "), the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; affame!fe,“ peace, war, &c.” (agreeing with gaten understood); Tegelirua.yami, -ENT, - “possessed of houses, temples, &c." Similarly, we in the example Futur: (agreeing with ust:, "garlands possessing the best odour and other qualities ”).

d. Long complex compounds may be generally translated by beginning at the last word and proceeding regularly backwards; as in the following Her Farantमुक्तककार मिलितकोकिलालाप.सङ्गीतकसुखावहः, -हा, -हं, “ causing pleasure by the music of the voice of the cuckoo, blended with the hum emitted by the swarms of joyous bees.”

e. Ma or eu, as occupying the last place in a complex relative, denote "composed of”; thus, zinu,99 çifaa Rych T3, “ a force consisting of elephants, horses, chariots, infantry, and servants”; 41st . barn, og omfat, “ the two actions consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth.”

Certain Anomalous Compounds. f. There are certain compounds which are too anomalous in their formation to admit of ready classification under any one of the preceding heads. Amongst these may be placed those compounds

expressive of comparison or likeness, usually included under the Karmadhāraya or Descriptive class. In these the adjective is placed last; as,' Q1479985:, -JT, -, “ fickle as a shadow "; tabat, -HT, -, "like foam "; weg.gura:, -HT, -#, “dark as a cloud "; yesteretd:, -$T, -, “spread out like a mountain ";

to fare closeup, -21, -2, “unsteady as a trembling drop of water"; नलिनी,दलतोय तरलः, -ला, -लं, “ tremulous as water on the leaf of a lotus "; the last two examples are complex.

g. There is a common anomalous compound formed by placing wake after another word, to express another,

other "; as, GIOR,“ another place "; UMUT HE, “ along with another king "; जन्मान्नराणि

Hofu,“ other births.” The following examples, also, are not readily assignable to any class : Maarifarunt, “a fighter who abandons all idea of life "; hlch fanita., -IT, --1, "accompanied by the Sārasa ";* meg,“never before seen."


Compound Nouns formed from Roots combined with Prepositions.

163. In the next section it will be shewn that the combination of roots with prepositions prevails most extensively in Sanscrit. From roots thus combined nouns of the most various significations may be formed; thus, from , "to seize," with fa and wa, is formed 2448T:, “ practice," from ai, “to do,” with a, 6911, "imitation.” Hardly a line can occur in any book that does not afford an example of this kind of compound.



164. The learner might look over the list of 1900 simple roots, and very well imagine that in some of these would be contained every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root would be unnecessary.

But the real fact is, that there are paratively very few Sanscrit roots in common use; and that whilst those that are so appear in a multitude of different forms by the prefixing of one or two or even three prepositions, the remainder


* So rytfanta: in Nala, translated by Bopp, umbra geminatus.

are quite useless for any practical purposes, except the formation of nouns.

Hence it is that compound verbs are of more frequent occurrence than simple ones. They are formed in two ways: 1st, by combining roots with prepositions ; 2dly, by combining the auxiliaries "to do,” and “to be,” with adverbs, or nouns converted into adverbs.


Compound Verbs formed by combining Prepositions with Roots.

165. The following list exhibits the prepositions chiefly used in combination with roots : enfor ati, “across,” “ beyond "; as, forent (p. 112.); wat,“ to pass

by," transgress" (pres. A, &c. p. 112.). yfy adhi, “above," "upon," "over "; as, wfet,“ to stand over,"

preside” (p. 107. pres. wffarelfa); wrop, “ to climb upon "; sfunt, “to lie upon” (p. 113.); wfma, “to go over towards"

(p. 107.); wyt, “to go over" in the sense of “reading” (p. 113.). ram, “ after"; as, sugar,“ to follow "; wg81, “to follow,” in the sense of “ performing "; vga,“ to imitate” (p. 102.); equat,

“to assent." war antar," within "(cf. inter); as, Woht,“ to place within,

ceal” (p. 119.), in pass. “to vanish "; wang, “to be within"

(p. 104.); why,“ to walk in the midst” (r. 31.). w4 apa, “off,” “ away” (cf. årò); as, 444, wwe, wrù (from wa and , p. 112.), "to go away "; want, “to lead away "; wuqy,

to abstract "; 449€,“ to bear away." It also implies detraction; as, wc, “to defame." yfa api, “on,” “over,” only used with yr and Te; as, fout, “ to

shut up"; we, “to bind on." The initial a is generally

rejected, leaving foryt, UGTE. eyfar abhi, “ to,” “ towards ” (cf. &mì); as, safirat, wat, “to go to

wards "; fryra, “to run towards "; sforent, “to behold ”

(p. 107.); wforaç,“ to address," " salute.” wa ava, “down,” “off”; as, sace, , “to descend "; wala,

“ to look down "; waa, “ to throw down,” “scatter "; van, “ to cut off.” It also implies disparagement; as, yaşıl, “ to despise” (p. 123.); wafuy, “to insult ” (p. 111.).

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When pre


11 ā, “to,” “ towards,” “up” (Latin ad); as, wifaxı, “to enter "; wam, "to go towards "; WTGE, “to mount up.

" fixed to t4 and at, "to go,” and ET, “to give,” it reverses the action; as, WA, writ, “to come "; WICT,“ to take."

With " to practise. 39 ut, "up," upwards " (opposed to fa); as, tarç (r. 16.), ufę,

"to go up," “ rise” (pres. 5f41fa, Ist conj.); Tei,“ to fly up"; FE (59 and 7, r. 18.), “to extract ”; Jfa and Jatice (r. 15.),

to open the eyes "; Fran, sfaç, “to cut up "; Jose, “to root up"; Tras, “ to lift up " (377 and fa, r. 17.). When prefixed to en it causes the elision of s; as, JrT, " to stand up." In

cases it reverses the action; as, from , "to fall," JRT, “to leap up "; from 77, “to bend down,” #4 (r. 15.), to raise up"; from 71, "to keep down,” say, “to lift up.

" Fu upa, “to,"

," "towards” (sf. ), joined like w and wfor to roots of motion ; as, 44T,“ to approach "; 399," to wait upon,

with fast," to sit down." fani,“ down," "downwards," " under" (opposed to TTT); as, faran

" to fall down"; नियम्, “ to suppress"; निमिष् and निमील, “ to close the eyes "; fafay, fary, 278, “to lay down," “deposit "; faran, “to go within,'

encamp. With it signifies “to return," desist "; with TA, “to hear." In some cases it does

not alter the sense; as, fakt, “to kill." farę nir, “out "; as, fao* (cf. note, p. 15.), fasta, faz (r. 31.), “ to go out "; farbam,“ to cut up "; fagna,“ to come to an end,"

With fa, “to determine. o parā, “back," " backwards” (cf. napa), combined with fa and भू in the sense of “ defeat "; as, aufst,“ to overcome vikáw, Æsch. Chöe.); pog, “to be defeated.” When joined with ş, 2d conj., it signifies“ to retire towards" (pres. RfA); when with , Ist conj. ātm., "to run away," "to retreat," y being

changed to 2 (pres. "T). of pari, "around

around" (cf. nepi, per); as, gay, gę, “to surround "; pfer, ufura, “to go round"; via, "to look round," "examine "; ufqm,“ to turn round "; furg, “to run round.” When prefixed to a it signifies “to adorn," and # is inserted,


“to despise," and with , to avoid.” It some




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(cf. napa

परिष्कृ. With

With लभ,

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with पद् ,

times merely gives intensity to the action; as, ofre, “to

abandon altogether." a pra, “ before,” “forward " (cf. mpo, pro, pra); as, A, T,“ to

proceed "; 444, “to set before,” present "; USH,“ to begin "; INTE, "to run forward "; we, “to set out,” “advance "; "to be superior," "prevail "; EST, "to foresee.” "to deceive." In combination with the causal of $4, it drops its final a; as, terufa, "I send." The r influences a following

nasal by r. 21. ; as, hun, “to bend before,' salute." ufa* prati, “ against,"

“ towards," " back again ";
back again "; as, yragų,

yfirgy"to fight against "; unit, “ to go towards” (pres. ArifA); for, " to return "; ufita, “to counteract "; faka, “to beat back,"

repel"; ufae, “to answer"; farcou “to recover "; ufrirat, to lead back "; frappe,“ to re-salute.” With , “ to promise ";

“ to arrive at, obtain." fa vi, “ apart,” implying "separation, distinction," distribution,"

"dispersion" (Latin dis, se); as, forar, “to wander about "; fareros, “to vacillate "; fare,“ to roam for pleasure "; faqa, “to dissipate "; ferę,“ to tear asunder "; fans, “to divide "; fafere,

to distinguish." Sometimes it gives a privative signification; as, fayt, "to disunite "; fang, “to forget "; fanit, “to sell.” With "to change for the worse.

Sometimes it has no apparent influence on the root ; as, facia, “to perish.'

together with " (ouv, con); as, afe, TE, “to collect "; siya, "to join together"; , "to meet together "; HRIE, “ to happen "; afgy, “to contract.” With a it signifies “to perfect,” and is inserted, rei. It is often prefixed without altering the sense; as, H, “to be produced."

166. Two prepositions are often combined with a root; as, aict, " to open” (fa, wt); HA, “to assemble” (HH, ut, with root V); afuna, “to prostrate one's self” (A, fa, r. 21.); we, “ to raise up

" (H, 37, with root z).

Occasionally three prepositions are combined ; as, traure, "to predict” (a, fa, wt); wrycie, “to answer" (ufa, Ta, WI).

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HF sam, "with,” “


* The final i of the prepositions, ofa, yf, fa, is optionally lengthened in forming certain nouns ; as, प्रतीकार, परीहास, नीकार.

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