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Joelatioe form 0f Substamtices compoumded foith certain -4drerbial Prgfices. l6l. This includes a class of compounds possessing no corre
Sponding absolute form, and composed of an adverb prefixed to a Substantive. By far the greater number of these are formed with
* Occasionally the feminine of the adjective appears in the compound ; as, षष्ठीभाय्यै:, ‘*having a sixth wife.'' f Unless they be regarded as the relative form of Ayayibhāva compounds. Z
162. We have now to speak of those complex Compound words, or compounds within compounds, which form the most remarkable feature in Sanscrit poetical composition. Instances might be given of twenty or thirty words thus compounded together, but these are the productions of the vitiated taste of more modern times, and are only curious as showing that the power of compounding words may often be perverted to the formation of a style the most extravagant and ridiculous. But even in the best Specimens of Sanscrit composition,and in the simplest prose writings, four, five, or even six words are commonly compounded together, involving two or three forms under one head. It will be easy, however, to determine the character of the forms involved, by the rules propounded in the preceding pages ; in proof of which the student has only to study attentively the examples we are about to give.
a. Instances of abSolute complex Compounds, whose sense is complete and unconnected, are not very abundant. The following may be taken as examples ः कालान्तएवृतिशुभाशुभानि, “good and evil (occurring) in the revolutions of the interval of time," the whole being a dependent, involving a dependent and an aggregative ; सेनापतिबलाध्यक्षौ, “ the general and the overseer of the forces,” the whole being an aggregative, involving two dependents ; शोकगृणतिः
whole being a dependent, involving an aggregative ; स्रवधीजिरूढङ्काक्पै, “ the disregarded words of a friend,'' the whole being a descriptive, involving a dependent.
f There are certain compounds which are too anomalous in their formation to admit of ready Classification under any one of the preceding heads. Amongst these may be placed those compounds
163. In the next Section it will be Shewn that the combination of roots with prepositions prevails most extensively in Sanscrit. From roots thus combined nouns of the most various significations may be formed ; thus, from ड्, “ to seiZe,'' with वि and सव, is formed व्यवहार:, “ practice," from कृ, “ to do,” with अनु, अनुकार, “ imitation.” Hardly a line can occur in any book that does not afford an example of this kind of compound.
I64. The learner might look over the list of I900 simple roots, and very well imagine that in some of these would be contained every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root would be unnecessary. But the real fact is, that there are comparatively very few Sanscrit roots in common use ; and that whilst those that are So appear in a multitude of different forms by the prefixing of one or two or even three prepositions, the remainder
* So छायाद्वितीय: in Nala, translated by Bopp, umbra geminatus.
00MPOUND WBRBS. 173
are guite useless for any practical purposes, except the formation of nouns. Hence it is that compound verbs are of more freguent occurrence than simple ones. They are formed in two ways : Ist, by combining roots with prepositions ; 2dly, by combining the auxiliaries कृ, “ to do," and भू, “to be," with adverbs, or nouns converted into adverbs. _