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Ablatively Dependent, 146. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is equivalent to that of an ablative; as, TUTE:, -97, -5, “ fallen from the kingdom ” (for IT HE:); 4a6a4:, other than you ” (for wantsar:); aşi, “ fear of you."
Genitively Dependent, 147. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is equivalent to that of a genitive. These are the most common of all dependent compounds, and may generally be expressed by a similar compound in English. They are for the most part composed of two substantives ; as, agnti,“ sea-shore (for Hugen ati,“ shore of the sea "); 4.98, " horse-back"; धनुर्गुणः, “ bow-string"; इष्टिका गृहं, “brick-house "; गिरिनदी, mountain-torrent "; A:, “ acquisition of wealth "; fauen,“ state of misfortune "; FEC., “ separation of friends "; "on whose brow” (loc. c.); ma:, “his words "; fag,“ on what account ?" vie, "on account of virtue "; gera:, “with hundreds of fools” (inst. c.); 14.84, “a couple of shlokas "; se, “the surface of the earth "; yfeetyfri, “lord of the earth "; mitaara, “for his support” (dat. c.); wargani, our sons "; FATA, “thy deed "; पितृवचनं, , “ a father's speech "; U.Ti “the gate of death "'; इच्छासम्पत् , “"मात्रानन्दः
“ fulfilment of wishes "; ATFEE, “a mother's joy." a. Sometimes an adjective in the superlative degree, used substantively, occupies the last place in the compound ; as, ach: or grataA:, “ the best of men.”
6. In a few instances the genitive case is retained ; as, fagrafa: , lord of men "; fearryfa:, “ lord of day.”
Locatively Dependent, 148. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is equivalent to that of a locative case ; as, Vati, -sall, -sa, “sunk in the mud ” (for HTA); Turfaedt,“ sporting in the sky; 10. shist,“ sport in the water "; stage, "a dweller in a village "; 09:, “ born in the water.”
a. It is very usual to retain the locative case, especially before nouns of agency; as, manat, “a villager "; Feat:, “ going in
Dependent in more than one Case. 149. Dependent compounds do not always consist of two words. They may be composed of almost any number of nouns, all depending upon each other, in the manner that one case depends upon another in a sentence ; thus, Aarauginantoti, - , -**, “passed beyond the range of the eye” (for gut f4444 ufanien:) ; 04.12.27:, “ standing in the middle of the chariot "; stagficatusure Hugfisiti, “skilful in censuring the means of rescuing those in danger."
AGGREGATIVE COMPOUNDS (DWANDWA). 150. This class of compounds has no parallel in other languages.
When two or more persons or things are enumerated together, it is usual in Sanscrit, instead of connecting them by a copulative, to aggregate them into one compound word. No syntactical dependence of one case upon another subsists between the members of Dwandwa compounds, since they must always consist of words which, if uncompounded, would be in the same case; and no other grammatical connection exists than that which would ordinarily be expressed by the use of the copulative conjunction and in English, or in Sanscrit. And it should be observed, that the chief difference between this class and the last turns upon this dependence in case of the words compounded on each other ; insomuch that the existence or absence of such dependence, as deducible from the context, is, in some cases, the only guide by which the student is enabled to refer the compound to the one head or to the other. Thus, गुरु शिष्य सेवकाः may either be a Dependent compound, and mean the servants of the pupils of the Guru," or an Aggregative, “the Guru, and the pupil, and the servant." And Hingfuni may either be Dependent, “the blood of the flesh," or Aggregative, “flesh and blood." This ambiguity, however, can never occur in aggregatives inflected in the dual, and very rarely occasions any practical difficulty.
There are three kinds of Aggregative compounds : Ist, inflected
in the plural ; 2d, inflected in the dual ; 3d, inflected in the singular. In the first two cases the final letter of the crude of the word terminating the compound determines the declension, and its gender the particular form of declension; in the third case it seems to be a law that this kind of compound cannot be formed unless the last word ends in a, or in a vowel changeable to a, or in a consonant to which a may be subjoined ; and the gender is invariably neuter, whatever may be the gender of the final word.
Inflected in the Plural. 151. When more than two animate objects are enumerated, the last is inflected in the plural; as, greifac.4upat:, “ Indra, Anila, Yama, and Arka" (for gry: wf: TA: wa:); THS WIT:, “Rāma, Lakshmaņa, and Bharata "; 7.1.A.&T: , “ the deer, the hunter, the serpent, and the hog.” The learner will observe, that although the last member of the compound is inflected in the plural, each of the members has here a singular acceptation.
But a plural signification may often be inherent in some or all of the words constituting the compound ; thus, fragrata.179:, “friends, neutrals, and foes" (for मित्राणि, उदासीनाः, शत्रवः); सिंहव्याघ्रमहोणाः, “lions, tigers, and serpents "; ATATATATGE 14HT:, “dogs, vultures, herons, ravens, kites, jackals, and crows."
a. So also when more than tro inanimate objects are enumerated, the last may be inflected in the plural; as, TUMAHUT:,
virtue, wealth, enjoyment, and beatitude" (for yra:, yai, A., Ata:); 144.grarfa,“ sacrifice, study, and liberality” (for TT, Vyh, Grai). In some of the following a plural signification is inherent; as, gero elfa, “flowers, roots, and fruits "; vannetui, “ of the unborn, the dead, and the foolish " (for Wamai, argi, मूर्खाणां); नेत्रमनःस्वभावाः, “eyes, mind, and disposition"; रोग-शोक परिताeramatarfa,“ sickness, sorrow, anguish, bonds, and afflictions."
b. So also when only two animate or inanimate objects are enumerated, in which a plural signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the plural; as, čaugot:, “gods and men "; gautat., sons and grandsons "; varutat:, “falls and rises "; acufet,
ramparts and trenches "; gegeng, “in pleasures and pains ” (for मुखेषु, दुःखेषु); पापपुण्यानि, “sins and virtues."
Inflected in the Dual. 152. When only two animate objects are enumerated, in each of which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the dual; as, TH.Datut, “Rāma and Lakshmana” (for TA: Juru:); agull, “the moon and sun "; Plaat,“ a deer and a crow."
a. So also when only two inanimate objects are enumerated, in each of which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the dual; as, uguruenit, “affection and enmity” (for uguti, अपरागः); क्षुत्पिपासे, “ hunger and thirst" (for क्षुत पिपासा); क्षुझाधी, “ hunger and sickness "; prahaZİ, “ by standing and sitting (for स्थानेन, भासनेन); मधुसर्पिषी, “ honey and ghee "; मुखदुःखे, “pleasure and pain." b. In aggregating two nouns of relationship, formed with the affix
(r. 41.), the first is placed in the nominative case instead of the crude; as, Atatoard, “mother and father.”
Inflected in the Singular Neuter. 153. When two or more inanimate objects are enumerated, whether singular or plural in their signification, the last may either be inflected as above, r. 151. a. b. r. 152., or in the singular number, neut. gender; as, you couco, "flowers, roots and fruits” (for yoyifu, sfat, licetfa); THEIGTI, “grass, food, water, and fuel" (for 497., W, 36, ); welci, "a day and night” (for wei, ufa:); feresi, “quarters and countries” (for fest, agit.).
a. Sometimes two or more animate objects are thus compounded; as, gult, “sons and grandsons"; zivj, "elephants and horses"; especially inferior objects,
श्व.चाण्डालं, “a dog and an outcast.”
6. In enumerating two qualities the opposite of each other, it is common to form a Dwandwa compound of this kind, by doubling an adjective or participle, and interposing the negative a; as, que, “moveable and immoveable” (for Via); TurTi, “ good and evil "; ferua, “in agreeable and disagreeable” (for fur wfga o); TET,“ seen and not seen "; antiquari, 'done and not done.”
DESCRIPTIVE COMPOUNDS (KARMADHĀRAYA). 154. In describing, qualifying, or defining a substantive by
means of an adjective or participle, it is common in Sanscrit to compound the two words together, placing the adjective or participle in the first member of the compound in its crude state ; as, साधुजनः, “a good man” (for ar a:); fefTİ, “an old friend' (for चिरं मित्रं); प्रियभाऱ्या "a dear wife" (for furat reht); 495 Tet*, “ a beautiful wife” (for Euanto); wada:, “a troubled ocean "; ge4.4h, “a holy act "; varaT"the infinite soul "; segafti, “ polished speech "; greutifu, “holy acts” (for greetfa midifa);
OUT, "of the best men" (for ATGT FOUT). a. HET is substituted for the crude HET, “great," in the first member of a Descriptive compound t; as, महापुरुषः, not महत्पुरुषः, “ a great man" (for HETT 969:); Hernati, "a great crime" (for HEMA); HET IS, “a great family.”
b. When the substantive TFTTT, "a king," is taken to form the last member of a Descriptive compound, it loses its proper form of declension as a noun of the 6th class (p. 41.), and is declined like a noun of the 1st class (see p. 42. note *.). AFE,
afe, "a friend "; yfers, “a road”; ya, “the eye"; ufa, “the night," and some other words undergo a similar change in inflection, and become nouns of the 1st class ; as, funne, "a dear friend "; tu, “a long night." When these latter words form the last member of Dependent or Collective compounds the same holds good; as in धर्मराजः, अग्निसखः, गवाक्षः.
c. Numerals in their crude state are sometimes found occupying the place of adjectives in the first member of a compound of this class; as, ageur:, “the four castes"; varur:, “five arrows."
d. Adjectives, used substantively, sometimes occupy the last place in Descriptive compounds; as, arbatai, “a very just man”; THIETI, “a very wonderful thing.”
e. Compounds expressing comparison fall under this class, and are composed of two substantives, the last being generally the name of an animal denoting superiority ; as, पुरुषापुङ्गवः, पुरुषसिंहः, पुरुपर्षभः, equivalent illustrious man.”
* Feminine nouns are rarely compounded in this way; and there can be no question that funt and rent are the proper crudes of the feminine form of the adjective. When the feminine of an adjective is used substantively, it does not give place to the crude; as, offraitsit:, “a wanton woman.”
+ But महत् is retained in a Dependent ; as, महदाश्रयः, recourse to the great."