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Ablatively Dependent, 146. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is equivalent to that of an ablative; as, TTE:, -91, -5, “ fallen from the kingdom ” (for Tri He:); wraçau: , other than you ” (for wantsat:); 19şi, “fear of you."
Genitively Dependent, 147. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is equivalent to that of a genitive. These are the most common of all dependent compounds, and may generally be expressed by a similar compound in English. They are for the most part composed of two substantives ; as, ignit,“ sea-shore " (for agenti,“ shore of the sea "); we, “ horse-back "; धनुर्गुणः, “ bow-string"; इष्टिकागृहं, “brick-house "; गिरिनदी, “ mountain-torrent "; Tama:, “ acquisition of wealth "; fauem,“ state of misfortune "; gese:,“ separation of friends "; fh“ on whose brow" (loc. c.); , “ his words "; fm“on what account ?" VAS, “on account of virtue "; gengra:, “with hundreds of fools (inst. c.); 1999, “a couple of shlokas "; TB, “ the surface of the earth "; fuentyfa:, “lord of the earth "; taar, “for his support” (dat. c.); erger:, our sons "; , “thy deed "'; fugari, “a father's speech "; 1YET, “the gate of death "; इच्छासम्पत्,
“ fulfilment of wishes "; ATAT, "a mother's joy." a. Sometimes an adjective in the superlative degree, used substantively, occupies the last place in the compound ; as, 8: or gcuaH:, “ the best of men."
b. In a few instances the genitive case is retained ; as, fagrafai, “ lord of men "; ferpfa:, “ lord of day."
Locatively Dependent, 148. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is equivalent to that of a locative case; as, पङ्कमग्नः, -ग्ना, -ग्नं, “sunk in the mud” (for HH); perfett,“ sporting in the sky; 1. Hist,“ sport in the water "; taarat, a dweller in a village "; FOF:, “ born in the water."
a. It is very usual to retain the locative case, especially before nouns of agency; as, taarait, “a villager "; : ,
Fat“ going in
the water "; fer fun:, -, -“ornamented on the breast " (see r. 131. 1.).
Dependent in more than one Case. 149. Dependent compounds do not always consist of two words. They may be composed of almost any number of nouns, all depending upon each other, in the manner that one case depends upon another in a
sentence ; thus, चक्षुर्विषयातिक्रान्तः, -न्ता, -नं, " ‘passed beyond the range of the eye” (for ut fauna sfort:); रथमध्यस्थः, “ standing in the middle of the chariot"; भीतपरित्राणवस्तूUIC Hugfusa, “skilful in censuring the means of rescuing those in danger."
AGGREGATIVE COMPOUNDS (DWANDWA). 150. This class of compounds has no parallel in other languages.
When two or more persons or things are enumerated together, it is usual in Sanscrit, instead of connecting them by a copulative, to aggregate them into one compound word. No syntactical dependence of one case upon another subsists between the members of Dwandwa compounds, since they must always consist of words which, if uncompounded, would be in the same case; and no other grammatical connection exists than that which would ordinarily be expressed by the use of the copulative conjunction and in English, or q in Sanscrit. And it should be observed, that the chief difference between this class and the last turns upon this dependence in case of the words compounded on each other; insomuch that the existence or absence of such dependence, as deducible from the context, is, in some cases, the only guide by which the student is enabled to refer the compound to the one head or to the other. Thus, गुरु शिष्य सेवकाः may either be a Dependent compound, and mean “the servants of the pupils of the Guru,” or an Aggregative, “the Guru, and the pupil, and the servant." And Afa.gifunt may either be Dependent, “the blood of the flesh," or Aggregative, “flesh and blood." This ambiguity, however, can never occur in aggregatives inflected in the dual, and very rarely occasions any, practical difficulty.
There are three kinds of Aggregative compounds : Ist, inflected in the plural; 2d, inflected in the dual ; 3d, inflected in the singular. In the first two cases the final letter of the crude of the word terminating the compound determines the declension, and its gender the particular form of declension; in the third case it seems to be a law that this kind of compound cannot be formed unless the last word ends in a, or in a vowel changeable to a, or in a consonant to which a may be subjoined ; and the gender is invariably neuter, whatever may be the gender of the final word.
Inflected in the Plural. 151. When more than two animate objects are enumerated, the last is inflected in the plural; as, sugerato.a&at:, “Indra, Anila, Yama, and Arka" (for इन्द्रः अनिलः यमः अर्कः); रामलक्ष्मणभरताः, “Rama, Lakshmaņa, and Bharata "; mandat: , “the deer, the hunter, the serpent, and the hog.” The learner will observe, that although the last member of the compound is inflected in the plural, each of the members has here a singular acceptation. But a plural signification may often be inherent in some or all of the words constituting the compound ; thus, facrata,ga:, “friends, neutrals, and foes " (for मित्राणि, उदासीनाः, शत्रवः); सिंहल्याघ्रमहोणाः,
lions, tigers, and serpents "; 1. ITHTATYSTYHT:, “dogs, vultures, herons, ravens, kites, jackals, and crows.
a. So also when more than two inanimate objects are enumerated, the last may be inflected in the plural; as, ISTA. Hlut:, “virtue, wealth, enjoyment, and beatitude" (for Yfi, vt, qai, Aa:); 74!4449.gratta,“ sacrifice, study, and liberality ” (for FM, ymur, Grai). In some of the following a plural signification is inherent; as, g 4 g COTft, "flowers, roots, and fruits"; mainetut, “ of the unborn, the dead, and the foolish " (for watai, garai, मूर्खाणां); नेत्रमनः स्वभावाः, “ eyes, mind, and disposition"; रोगशोकपरिताqarahata, “sickness, sorrow, anguish, bonds, and afflictions.
6. So also when only two animate or inanimate objects are enumerated, in which a plural signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the plural; as, ca.gut:, “ gods and men "; Fuat, sons and grandsons "; quadratat:, “falls and rises "; locufet,
ramparts and trenches "; gagieg, “in pleasures and pains " (for मुखेषु, दुःखेषु); पापपुण्यानि, “sins and virtues."
Inflected in the Dual. 152. When only two animate objects are enumerated, in each of which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the dual; as, TAHUT, “Rāma and Lakshmana” (for TA: Hu:); ang ganit, “the moon and sun "; vaaht“ a deer and a crow.
a. So also when only two inanimate objects are enumerated, in each of which a singular signification is inherent, the last is infected in the dual; as, wguit, “affection and enmity” (for ugo:, अपरागः); क्षुत्पिपासे, “ hunger and thirst" (for छुन पिपासा); क्षुझाधी, “ hunger and sickness "; eta!HATİ, “by standing and sitting (for स्थानेन, भासनेन); मधुसर्पिषी , “ honey and ghee "; सुख दुःखे, “pleasure and pain."
b. In aggregating two nouns of relationship, formed with the affix (r. 41.), the first is placed in the nominative case instead of the crude; as, Hatfund,“ mother and father.”
Inflected in the Singular Neuter. 153. When two or more inanimate objects are enumerated, whether singular or plural in their signification, the last may either be inflected as above, r. 151. a. b. r. 152., or in the singular number, neut. gender; as, yuracanes, “flowers, roots and fruits” (for garfu, Fifa, Vicofa); TcHteita, “grass, food, water, and fuel" (for यवसः, अन्न, उदकं, इन्धन); अहोरात्रं, “a day and night" (for अहः, त्रिः); feresi, “quarters and countries " (for fest, astr:).
a. Sometimes two or more animate objects are thus compounded; as, gauti, “sons and grandsons"; F7797, “elephants and horses"; especially inferior objects, as ATTSTCO, “ a dog and an outcast.”
b. In enumerating two qualities the opposite of each other, it is common to form a Dwandwa compound of this kind, by doubling an adjective or participle, and interposing the negative a; as, quei, “moveable and immoveable” (for at vi a); शुभाशुभं, good and evil "; faifud, “in agreeable and disagreeable" (for प्रिये अप्रिये च); दृष्टादृष्ट, seen and not seen "; alegri, done and not done.”
DESCRIPTIVE COMPOUNDS (KARMADHĀRAYA). 154. In describing, qualifying, or defining a substantive by
means of an adjective or participle, it is common in Sanscrit to compound the two words together, placing the adjective or participle in the first member of the compound in its crude state ; as, साधुजनः, “a good man” (for Hry Fa:); fact, “an old friend' (for चिरं मित्रं); प्रियभाऱ्या a dear wife" (for fugt fra); 4951 T*,
a beautiful wife” (for ayant attadt); parda:, “a troubled ocean "; q24.a, “a holy act "; HT,“ the infinite soul "; sendiri, polished speech ”; grey arritfu,“ holy acts” (for gefa hofu); THFUUT“
tout, "of the best men " (for TATTI FRUT). a. HET is substituted for the crude HET, “great,” in the first member of a Descriptive compound t; as, महापुरुषः, not महत्पुरुषः, “ a great man" (for AETT 964); Ferra, “a great crime" (for महत्पातक); महाकुलं, “a great family."
6. When the substantive TF, “a king,” is taken to form the last member of a Descriptive compound, it loses its proper form of declension as a noun of the 6th class (p. 41.), and is declined like a noun of the 1st class (see p. 42. note *.). Afe,
afe, "a friend "; पथिन्, "a road”; na, “the eye"; ufa, “the night," and some other words undergo a similar change in inflection, and become nouns of the 1st class; as, furuhe:, “a dear friend"; tur, "a long night.” When these latter words form the last member of Dependent or Collective compounds the same holds good; as in धर्मराजः, अग्निसखः, गवाक्षः.
:. c. Numerals in their crude state are sometimes found occupying the place of adjectives in the first member of a compound of this class; as, agur:, “the four castes”; quemur:, “five arrows."
d. Adjectives, used substantively, sometimes occupy the last place in Descriptive compounds ; as, paraffi, “a very just man”; THIETT, “a very wonderful thing.”
e. Compounds expressing comparison fall under this class, and are composed of two substantives, the last being generally the name of an animal denoting superiority; as, पुरुषापुङ्गवः, पुरुषसिंहः, पुरुषर्षभः, equivalent to “an illustrious man."
* Feminine nouns are rarely compounded in this way; and there can be no question that furat and gent are the proper crudes of the feminine form of the adjective. When the feminine of an adjective is used substantively, it does not give place to the crude; as, affitt:, “a wanton woman."
+ But महत् is retained in a Dependent ; as, महदाश्रयः, recourse to the great."