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ral parts or members of the division. For it is plain, from the examples given, that the 5th class of compounds may often be regarded as another name for the first three, when they take the form of adjectives declinable in three genders; and that the second Species of the 4th class is for this reason referrible to the 5th. The student, moreover, finds it difficult to understand why, if the definition of the 5th class of compounds be, that they are epithets of other nouns; such compounds as शास्त्रकुशल and मणिभूषित should not be comprehended under it. And further, he is often at a loss to refer a compound to its proper head,* from the inadeguacy of the definitions to express all the cases included under each। claSS. In the following pages the subject is discussed according to a different method, although it has been thought desirable to keep the mative arrangement in view. Compound nouns may be regarded either as simply or complealy compounded. The latter have reference to a class of compounds within compounds, very prevalent in poetry, involving two or three Species of simple compounds under one head.
SIMPLV COMPOUNDED NOUNS.
l42. These will be divided into, Ist, Dependent in case (correSponding to Tatpurasha); 2d, Aggregative (Dipandica) ; 3d, Descriptivef (corresponding to Karmadhāraya) ; 4th, Collective (corresponding tO Droiga) ; 5th, Relative (corresponding to Baha८ori/ii). This last includes, a. Relative form of absolute Dependent compounds, terminated by substantives ; b. Relative form of Aggregative compounds ; c. Relative form of Descriptive compounds ; d. Relative form of Collective compounds ; e. Relative form of substantives in composition with certain adverbial prefixes.
* AS, for instance, Such a compound as कृष्णशुङ्खाः, -ज्ञा, -झं, “any thing black and white.”
f As being composed of an adjective or participle preceding a substantive, and always descriptive of the substantive. Prof. Bopp calls them ‘* Determinativa,” a word of similar import. The names “ Dependent ” and “ Collective” were suggested by Prof. Bopp's “ Dependentia'' and “ Collectiva."
147. Or those in which the relation of the fir’st word to the last is eduivalent to that of a genitive. These are the most common of all dependent compounds, and may generally be expressed by a similar compound in English. They are for the most part composed of two substantives ; as, समुद्रतीरं, “ sea-shore ` (for समुद्रस्य तीरॆ, “ shore of the sea `) ; अश्वपृष्ठं, “ horse-back";
149. Dependent compounds do not always consist of two words. They may be composed of almost any number of nouns, all depending upon each other, in the manner that one case depends upon another in a sentence ; thus, चक्षुर्विषयातिक्रान्त:, –न्ता, -नतं, “ passed beyond the range of the eye " (for चक्षुषो विषयम् अतिक्रान्त:) ; यमध्यस्य:, “ standing in the middle of the chariot "; भीतपरित्राण्वस्तू
l50. This class of compounds has no parallel in other languages.
When two or more persons or things are enumerated together, it is usual in Sanscrit, instead of connecting them by a copulative, to aggregate them into one compound word. No syntactical dependence of one case upon another Subsists between the members of Dwandwa compounds, Since they must always consist of words which, if uncompounded, would be in the same case ; and no other grammatical connection exists than that which would ordinarily be expressed by the use of the copulative conjunction and in English, or च in Sanscrit. And it should be observed, that the chief difference between this class and the last turns upon this dependence in case of the words compounded on each other ; insomuch that the existence or absence of Such dependence, as deducible from the context, is, in some cases, the only guide by which the student is enabled to refer the compound to the one head or to the other. Thus, गुरुशिष्यसेवका: may either be a Dependent compound, and mean “ the servants of the pupils of the Guru," or an Aggregative, “ the Guru, and the pupil, and the servant." And मांसशोणितं may either be Dependent, “ the blood of the flesh," or Aggregative, “ flesh and blood." This ambiguity, however, can never occur in aggregatives inflected in the dual, and very rarely occasions any practical difficulty.
There are three kinds of Aggregative compounds : lst, inflected
AGOGREGATIWE CO'MPOUNDS 0R DWANDWA. '163
in the plural ; 2d, inflected in the dual ; 3d, inflected in the singular. In the first two cases the final letter of the crude of the word terminating the compound determines the declension, and its gender the particular form of declension ; in the third case it seems to be a law that this kind of compound cannot be formed unless the last word ends in a, or in a vowel changeable to a, or in a consonant to which a may be Subjoined ; and the gender is
invariably meuter, whatever may be the gender of the final word. *