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which it governs, and may be regarded as forming with it a kind of adverbial compound, especially as instances are not uncommon of other prepositions united in composition with the neuter form or accusative case of nouns; as, f, "upon the shoulders "; प्रतिमुखं, “ face to face"; अधिवृक्षं, “ upon the tree "; अनुगङ्गं, “ along the Ganges" (see r. 171. 6.).

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ADVERBS USED FOR PREPOSITIONS.

139. There are certain adverbs used for prepositions in government with nouns, but generally placed after the nouns which they govern.

a., "besides," governing the accusative and sometimes ablative case. ,"up to," as far as," sometimes found with

the accusative.

6. सह,

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b. a, a, “with," "along with," governing the instrumental. c. fa, "without," with the instrumental or accusative, or विना, sometimes the ablative.

d. af, "out" and and

with the ablative.

f, "inde a," "from a particular time,"

f, "inde a,

e. अर्थे, अर्थे, हेतोः, हेतौ, कृते, निमित्ते, “on account of," “for the sake of," with the genitive, or more usually with the crude form. उपरि, "above "above" (cf. vπeр, super), with the genitive. So अधस् or अधस्तात्, “ below "; समीपं सकाशं, " near "; सकाशात् " from "; अमे, , &c., "in the presence of"; "after"; "before"; watu, "without," "except"; "within"; all governing the genitive. उपरि and अधस् are sometimes doubled; thus, उपर्युपरि अधो-धः.

पश्चात्, अन्तर्,

INTERJECTIONS.

140.:,,, are vocative;,, less respectfully vocative, or sometimes expressive of contempt. f expresses "abhorrence "; साः, अहो, सहह, "surprise "; हा, हाहा, अहो, अहोवत्, " grief"; साधु, ,"approbation "; af, "salutation."

CHAPTER IX.

COMPOUND WORDS.

COMPOUNDS abound in Sanscrit to a degree wholly unequalled in any other language, and it becomes necessary to study the principles on which they are constructed, before the learner can hope to understand the simplest sentence in the most elementary book. In the foregoing chapters we have treated of simple nouns, simple verbs, and simple adverbs. We have now to treat of compound nouns, compound verbs, and compound adverbs.

Observe, that in this chapter a dot placed underneath marks the division of the words in a compound.

SECT. I.-COMPOUND NOUNS.

141. The student has now arrived at that portion of the subject in which the use of the crude state of the noun becomes most

strikingly apparent. This use has been already noticed at r. 36., pp. 19, 20; and its formation explained, pp. 21—27. In all compound nouns (with some few exceptions) the last word alone admits of declension, and the preceding word or words require to be placed in the crude form, this crude form admitting of a plural as well as singular signification.

Native grammarians class compound nouns under five heads: the 1st they call TATPURUSHA, or those composed of two nouns, the first of which (being in the crude) would be, if uncompounded, case different from, or dependent on, the last; as, IT, "moon-light" (for, "the light of the moon "); maguo:, -ला, -लं,* “skilled in arms " (for शस्त्रेषु कुशलः) ; मणिभूषितः, -ता, तं,

in a

* Observe, that in this chapter the nom. case, and not the crude, of a substantive terminating a compound will be given, and in the instance of an adjective forming the last member of a compound, the nom. case masc., fem., and neut. The examples are chiefly taken from the Hitopadesha, and sometimes the oblique cases in which they are there found have been retained.

"adorned with gems" (for fun fan:). The 2d, DWANDWA, or those formed by the aggregation into one compound of two or more nouns (the last word being, according to circumstances, either in the dual, plural, or neuter singular, and the preceding word or words being in the crude), when, if uncompounded, they would all be in the same case, connected by a copulative conjunction; as, ef, “master and pupil" (for ; faww); मरणव्याधिशोकाः, “ death, sickness, and sorrow " (for मरणं व्याधिः शोकश्च) ;

fuqi, “hand and foot" (for fu: ). The 3d, KARMADHÁRAYA, or those composed of an adjective and substantive, the adjective being placed first in its crude state, when, if uncompounded, it would be in grammatical concord with the substantive; as, साघुशीलः, “a good disposition” (for साधुः शील: ) ; सर्व्वद्रव्याणि, “ all things " (for सर्व्वाणि द्रव्याणि ). The 4th, DWIGU, or those in which a numeral in its crude state is compounded with a noun, either so as to form a singular collective noun, or an adjective; as, त्रिगुणं, “three qualities ” (for त्रयो गुणाः) ; त्रिगुणः, -णा, -णं, “ possessing the three qualities.” The 5th, BAHUVRIHI,* or those formed

of any number of words associated to form an epithet to a noun; as, चन्द्रप्रभः, -भा, भं, “ brilliant as the moon "; मरणव्याधिशोकः, का, कं, "liable to death, sickness, and sorrow "; :, -, -¿, “well

disposed."

Such then, in brief, is the native division of compound words, a division leading to some confusion, from the incompleteness and want of sufficient comprehensiveness in the definitions, and the absence of sufficient distinctness and opposition between the seve

* These names either furnish examples of the several kinds of compounds, or give some sort of definition of them. Thus, ry:, “his servant,” is an example of the 1st kind (for you:); 7: is a definition of the 2d kind, meaning

"conjunction";

: is a definition of the 3d kind, i.e. "containing the object,” (); faŋ; is an example of the 4th kind, meaning "any thing to the value of two cows"; fe; is an example of the 5th kind, meaning “possessed of

much rice." There is a 6th class of compounds called

: avyayibhāvah,

i. e. “the indeclinable state"; but these will be noticed under the head of compound adverbs.

For it is plain, from the

ral parts or members of the division. examples given, that the 5th class of compounds may often be regarded as another name for the first three, when they take the form of adjectives declinable in three genders; and that the second species of the 4th class is for this reason referrible to the 5th. The student, moreover, finds it difficult to understand why, if the definition of the 5th class of compounds be, that they are epithets of other nouns ; such compounds as शस्त्रकुशल and मणिभूषित should not be comprehended under it. And further, he is often at a loss to refer a compound to its proper head,* from the inadequacy of the definitions to express all the cases included under each class.

In the following pages the subject is discussed according to a different method, although it has been thought desirable to keep the native arrangement in view.

Compound nouns may be regarded either as simply or complexly compounded. The latter have reference to a class of compounds within compounds, very prevalent in poetry, involving two or three species of simple compounds under one head.

SIMPLY COMPOUNDED NOUNS.

142. These will be divided into, 1st, Dependent in case (corresponding to Tatpurusha); 2d, Aggregative (Dwandwa); 3d, Descriptive† (corresponding to Karmadhāraya); 4th, Collective (corresponding to Dwigu); 5th, Relative (corresponding to Bahuvrihi). This last includes, a. Relative form of absolute Dependent compounds, terminated by substantives; b. Relative form of Aggregative compounds; c. Relative form of Descriptive compounds; d. Relative form of Collective compounds; e. Relative form of substantives in composition with certain adverbial prefixes.

* As, for instance, such a compound as uYK, -M, -, “any thing black

and white."

† As being composed of an adjective or participle preceding a substantive, and always descriptive of the substantive. Prof. Bopp calls them "Determinativa," a word of similar import. The names Dependent" and "Collective" were suggested by Prof. Bopp's "Dependentia" and "Collectiva."

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DEPENDENT COMPOUNDS, OR COMPOUNDS DEPENDENT IN CASE

(TATPURUSHA).

Accusatively Dependent.

143. These comprehend all those compounds in which the relation of the first word (being in the valent to that of an accusative case. posed of a noun in the first member, and agency in the last; as,

crude) to the last is equiThey are generally coma participle or noun of :, -, -, "one who has obtained

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heaven ” (equivalent to स्वर्गं प्राप्तः) ; प्रियवादी, “ one who speaks kind words"; "one who gives much";

arms."

बहुदः,

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one who bears

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a. Before the nouns of agency the accusative case is often retained, especially in poetry; as, fi, -, -Å, enemysubduing";:, -, -, “heart-touching"; "fear-inspiring" (see r. 131. 1.).

Instrumentally Dependent.

gt, -a, -i, भयङ्करः, -रा,

144. Or those in which the relation of the first word (being in the crude) to the last is equivalent to that of an instrumental case. These are very common, and are, for the most part, composed of a substantive in the first member, and a passive participle in the last; as, fen:, -, -, “beguiled by avarice" (for लोभमोहितः, that मोहित); वस्त्रवेष्टितः, -ता, -तं, “ covered with clothes "; राज पूजितः, ता, तं "honoured by kings"; fa:, -, -, “deserted by (i. e. destitute of) learning"; FŢ, -, -, “pained with grief"; -,-,"done by one's self";

(for आदित्येन सदृश:).

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fquaɛN:, -, -, “like the sun

a. Sometimes, but rarely, this

kind of compound contains a

substantive or noun of agency in the last member; as, fari,

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stat, “one who lives by arms."

money acquired by science";

Datively Dependent.

145. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is equivalent to that of a dative; as, feinen, “bark for

clothing"; pin:, -, -, “come for protection" (for UNA शरणागतः, -ता, शरणाय आगत). This kind of compound is very rare, and is generally supplied by the use of अर्थे (r. 139. e.) ; as, शरणार्थम् आगतः.

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