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l36. च cha, “ and,' “ also,' corresponding to the Latin gue and not et. It can never, therefore, Stand as the first foord in a sentence. It is not, however, like gue, necessarily interposed between the first and second words, but may be admitted to any part of the sentence, being only excluded from the first place.
a. हि, “ for,' like च is always placed after its word, and never admitted to the first place in a sentence.
८. यदि, चेत् , “ if"; अय, “ then," “ now," used very commonly as an inceptive particle. ततस् , “ upon that," “ then " (r. l33. a.), अन्यच, किञ्च, अपरञ्च, परव, अपिच, “ again," “ moreover," used very commonly before guotations. चैव, “ also.'
l38. Of all the internal evidences of the antiguity of Sanscrit, there is none more decisive than the sparing use which this language makes of prepositions, in expressing the dependence of one word upon another. These aids to syntactical combination are always to be regarded as a result of modern refinement, incom
patible with the sternness and Simplicity of the most ancient languages. Thus, even the Greek, which of all others is the most copiously provided with these auxiliaries, made comparatively) small use of them in the days of Homer, and imitated the Sanscrit in expressing a variety of diferent relations by some of the cases of its nouns. It cannot be doubted that much ambiguity may result from this rigid rejection of any other aid to the construction of Sentences than nominal inflection ; but when, as in Sanscrit, even this inflection is but sparingly used, and long compounds are formed, consisting of words joined together in their crude state, the last only taking any case ; and when even the assistance of a verb is often denied to guide the reader to the nature of the dependence of these words upon each other ; we are forced to admit that this language would gain much in ease and perspicuity, if it were more abundantly supplied with such important elements of Syntactical arrangement. But let not the reader imagine that no prepositions exist in Sanscrit. It will be found by a reference to r. l65. that they exist in great abundance, but only as inseparable prefixes, gualifying the sense of roots, and the nouns and verbs derived from roots. There are only three, out of all this list of prepositions, that are ever used in government with mouns ; viZ. स्रा ā, प्रति prati, and चनु amac ; and of these the two last are mever So used, except as jpos/positioms. " a. स्रा ā, generally signifying “ as far as," " up to,'' governs the ablative case ; as, स्रासमुद्रात्, “ as far as the ocean '; सामनो:, “ up to Manu '; and rarely the accusative, as शतम् स्राजाती:, “ for a hundred births.” But instances are not common of words in regimen with this preposition. 9. प्रति prati, generally signifying “ at," " with regard to,' " against," governs the accusative ; as, गङ्गां प्रति, “ at the Ganges '; धर्मेमं प्रति, “ with regard to justice "; शतुं प्रति, “ against an enemy.” It sometimes has the force of apadd ; as, मां प्रति, “ apad me,' “ as far as regards me.” c. अनु is occasionally found governing the accuSative ; as, तदनु, '' after that.' The preposition सा, however, is not separated from the word
which it governs, and may be regarded as forming with it a kind of adverbial compound, especially as instances are not uncommon of other prepositions united in composition with the neuter form or accusative case of nouns ; as, प्रतिख्कन्घै, " upon the shoulders '';
139. There are certain adverbs used for prepositions in government with nouns, but generally placed after the nouns which they govern.
a. चतृते, " besides,” governing the accusative and sometimes ablative case. यावत्, “ up to,” “ as far as," sometimes found with the accusative.
८. सह, साइं, “ with,” “ along with,” governing the instrumental.
८. विना, " without,' with the instrumental or accusative, or Sometimes the ablative.
C HAPTER, Ix,
CoMPOUNDs abound in Sanscrit to a degree wholly unegualled in any other language, and it becomes mecessary to study the principles on which they are constructed, before the learner can hope to understand the simplest sentence in the most elementary book. Im the foregoing chapters we have treated of simple nouns, simple verbs, and simple adverbs. We have now to treat of compound nouns, compound verbs, and compound adverbS. Observe, that in this chapter a dot placed underneath marks the division of the words in a compound.
SEcr. 1.-COMPOUND RGOUNS.
141. The student has mow arrived at that portion of the subject im which the use of the crude state of the noun becomes most strikingly apparent. This use has been already noticed at r. 36., pp. 19, 20 ; and its formation explained, pp. 2l-27. ” In all compound nouns (with some few exceptions) the last word alone . admits of declension, and the preceding word or words reguire to be placed in the crude form, this crude form admitting of a plural as well as singular Signification. Native grammarians class compound nouns under five heads : the lst they call rAroण्यण्,A, or those composed of two nouns, the first of which (being in the crude) would be, if uncompounded, in a case different from, or dependent on, the last ; as, चन्द्रप्रभा, “ moon-light " (for चन्द्रस्य प्रभा, “ the light of the moon '); शस्त्रकुशल:, -ला, -लं,* " skilled in arms " (for शस्त्रेषु कुशल:) ; मणिभूषित:, -ता, -तं,
* Observe, that in this chapter the nom. case, and not the crude, of a substantive terminating a compound will be given, and in the instance of an adjective forming the last member of a compound, the nom. case masc., fem., and neut. The examples are chiefly taken from the Hitopadesha, and sometimes the obligue caBes
in which they are there found have been retained.
* These names either furnish examples of the several kinds of compounds, or give some SOrt of definition of them. Thus, तत्पुरूष:, “his servant,” is an example of the Ist kind (for तस्य पुरूष:); द्वन्द्वः is a definition of the 2d kind, meaning “ conjunction”; कम्मेधाय: is a definition of the 8d kind, i.e. “ containing the object,” (कस्मै) ; द्विगुः is an example of the 4th kind, meaning “ any thing to the value of two cows ”; बहुव्रीहिः is an example of the 5th kind, meaning “ possessed of much rice.” There is a 6th class of compounds called अव्ययीभाव: aayag/ibhācah, i. e. “ the indeclinable state''; but these will be noticed under the head of compound adwerbs.