Imatges de pàgina


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formed from the cases of nouns ; 2dly, as formed with affixes ; 3dly, as of uncertain derivation ; 4thly, as prefixes to other words.

Adverbs formed from the Cases of Nouns. The following cases of nouns are used adverbially :

a. The nominative or accusative neuter of any adjective; as, Hri,“ truly "; SE, “much "; pidi, fadi, "quickly ”; a “fitly "; Hatü, “near"; , “lightly"; fatti, wori, TÉ, Sİ, “ exceedingly "; wajů,“ certainly "; fart, “ constantly "; moun,“ strongly.” The nom. acc. neuter of certain pronouns ; as, na, “therefore"; AT wherefore,"

so long as "; 47, as long as "; fait, “why ? ” The nom. or acc. neut. of certain substantives and obsolete words ; as CF:, "secretly"; FTA,“ willingly "; ETA, by name," that is to say"; art art, “repeatedly "; feri“long ago "; , “ pleasantly"; Hart,“ now "; 4*, “ by night " (noctu).

6. The instrumental case of nouns and pronouns; as, yy, virtuously "; fawa, southwards ”; sau,

Jalu, “northwards "; 5t:, “above "; Flet:, “ below "; yrat:, “slowly ”; na, “therefore "; येन, wherefore." The instr. case of certain obsolete nouns; as, fanu,“for a long time "; fu,“ in a short time "; fça,“ by day"; fceat, “fortunately"; HEHT, WA,“ quickly "; wygt,“ now.'

c. The ablative case of a few nouns and pronouns ; as, act, " forcibly "; FUT, “at a distance "; FATA, “therefore "; FATA, “wherefore"? WATTE,“ without cause," "unexpectedly "; JERITE, “from the north": and of a few obsolete nouns; as, farema, “ for a long time "; IT, “afterwards."

d. The locative case of a few nouns and obsolete words; as, TT, “at night "; at, "far off "; i ben, “in the forenoon "; , “suitably "; , “ in front "; Raya," at once "; Huf,“ instantly "; within."

Adverbs formed with Affixes. 133. fara chit, vyfa api, and a chana, may form Indefinite adverbs of time and place, when affixed to interrogative adverbs; as, from कदा, “when?" कदाचित्, कदापि, and कदाचन, “sometimes"; from कुत्र and sp, "where?” garen, garfo, fra, gira, “somewhere "; from कुतस्, , " whence?" कुतश्चित् and कुतश्चन,

from somewhere "; from


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af, “when ?” afefern, “at some time "; from mi,“ how ?" 249, “ somehow or other " (cf. r. 85.).

a. 7 tas (changeable to 7: or ī, r. 29.) may be added to any noun, and to some pronouns, to form adverbs ; as, from im, na:, " with effort "; from wife, ufca:, “from the beginning "; from a (the proper crude of the pronoun 75), na:, “thence"; similarly, Wi, 58:, “ hence." This affix usually gives the sense of the prepositions with and from, and is often equivalent to the ablative case; as, in ha:, “from me "; , “ from thee ": but it is sometimes vaguely employed to express other relations; as, yeni,

behind the back "; TAN:, “in the first place "; Haan:, sides"; :, "in front"; fra:, "near to." 6. tra, forming adverbs of Place; as, v, “ here "; E,


where"; ,"everywhere "; अन्यत्र, “ in another place"; 297,“ in one place "; FET,“ in many places"; we, “there," in the next world."

c. a tha and #tham, forming adverbs of Manner; as, mat, * so"; , “as "; got,“ in every way"; "T,“ otherwise ";

, “how?" Frü,"thus." d. ci , forming adverbs of Time from pronouns, &c.; as, act, then "; UGT,“ when "; aigt,“ when?” Panci, once "; FARGT, "constantly "; HET, HCT, “always.”

e. u, dhā, forming adverbs of Distribution from numeral adjectives; as, Pat, “in one way"; fayt, "in two ways "; TTT,“ in six ways"; MOYT,“ in a hundred ways "; HEHT, “in a thousand ways "; TENT,“ in many ways.”

f. an vat may be added to any noun to form adverbs of Similitude; as, from earl, pan, “like the sun "; from ên, qan, as before."

g. T shas, forming adverbs of Quantity; as, Test: , “ abundantly "; 49:,“ in small quantities "; 249:, “singly "; VAHEHYT:,

by hundreds and thousands "; *:,“ by degrees.'

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* These are the forms generally used for the ablative case of the personal pronouns, the proper ablative cases HT, po being never used except as substitutes for the crude, in compound words.




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Adverbs of Uncertain Derivation. 134. Of Afirmation. -71, ar, faris, ta, “indeed "; wfa, “even.

a. Of Negation.-a, at, afe, “not.” HT, ATH are prohibitive; as, मा कुरु,

* do not." AT is often used with the 3d preterite, the augment being rejected, as it mef:, “do not " (p. 102.).

6. Of Interrogation.-farea, afon, g, h, faija, “whether ?"

c. Of Comparison.-30, 'like "; एव, एवं, “so"; किम्पुनर्, “how much rather."

d. Of Quantity.-nita, “exceedingly"; fun, “ a little "; सकृत, , once"; असकृत् , पुनः पुनर्, मुहुस् , भूयस् , “ repeatedly."

e. Of, på, “so," thus "; garç, “ again"; urre, for the most part "; GIGIT, variously "; quan,“ separately "; fa24,"falsely "; 24, , “in vain ”; , “ enough"; tafefa, WTI (cf. 'skús), “ quickly "; gout, “ silently.”

f. Of Time.-28, “to day,” “now "; scrat, Hayfa, “now "; तदानीं, “ then"; पुण, “formerly"; पुरस्, पुरस्तात् , प्राक,

before "; yorug, “ at once "; HECH,“ instantly "; dry, "after death "; t.* "afterwards "; ,"ever"; 7 FC, “never."

g. Of Place.-€, “here"; "where?" afer, “without." h. Of Doubt.- fatifen, wfugla,“ perhaps.”

Adverbial Prefixes. 135. pa prefixed to nouns and even to participles with a privative or negative force, corresponding to the Greek a, the Latin in, and the English in, im, un; as, from ya, “possible," 0197, “impossible "; from Eysia, “touching” (pres. part.), tym, touching." When a word begins with a vowel, wais euphonically substituted; as, wit, end "; v Grott,

endless." a. wfa ati, excessively," " very "; as, waren,“ very great. ”

b. utā, prefixed to imply “diminution "; as, wiYTIB, what pale.” $47 is prefixed with the same sense.

c. 7 or mku, prefixed to words to imply “disparagement "; as, कापुरुष,

a coward "; 1104, “deformed." d. दुर

dur, prefixed to imply “ badly,” or “with difficulty "; as, cogn,“ badly done " (cf. p. 15. note); gata, not easily broken." It is opposed to y, and corresponds to the Greek duo.

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* These, however, admit of derivation, and a few others less obviously.


e. fare nir and fa vi are prefixed to nouns like wa with a privative or negative sense; as, fatas, “powerless "; fagra, “unarmed "; but not to participles. f. 8u, prefixed to imply "well," "

easily "; as, centro,

well done "; me,“ easily broken." In this sense it is opposed to , and corresponds to the Greek €ů. It is also used for ufa, to imply“ very,” “excessively "; as, garn,“ very great."


not et.

Copulatice. 136. cha, “and," “ also,” corresponding to the Latin

" que and It can never, therefore, stand as the first word in a sentence, It is not, however, like que, necessarily interposed between the first and second words, but may be admitted to any part of the sentence, being only excluded from the first place.

a. f€, " for,” like y is always placed after its word, and never admitted to the first place in a sentence.

6. ufa, ea, "if"; we, “then,” “ now," used very commonly as an inceptive particle. ततस्, upon that,” “then” (r. 133. a.). Wys, faz, 9C, Te, wfqa, “ again,” “moreover," used very commonly before quotations. , “also.”

Disjunctive. 137. 97 vā, “or," corresponds to the Latin ve, and is always placed after its word, being never admitted to the first place in a sentence. g, faring, “ but "; the former is placed after its word; Tufu,“ although "; marfa, “nevertheless," " yet,” sometimes used as a correlative to the last; अथवा, किम्वा, “ or else "; Tal, “or not "; ufcat," whether," "whether or no." A, T, J, à, are expletives, often used in poetry with no other object than to fill up the verse.


138. Of all the internal evidences of the antiquity of Sanscrit, there is none more decisive than the sparing use which this language makes of prepositions, in expressing the dependence of one word upon another. These aids to syntactical combination are always to be regarded as a result of modern refinement, incom

patible with the sternness and simplicity of the most ancient languages. Thus, even the Greek, which of all others is the most copiously provided with these auxiliaries, made comparatively small use of them in the days of Homer, and imitated the Sanscrit in expressing a variety of different relations by some of the cases of its nouns.

It cannot be doubted that much ambiguity may result from this rigid rejection of any other aid to the construction of sentences than nominal inflection; but when, as in Sanscrit, even this inflection is but sparingly used, and long compounds are formed, consisting of words joined together in their crude state, the last only taking any case; and when even the assistance of a verb is often denied to guide the reader to the nature of the dependence of these words upon each other; we are forced to admit that this language would gain much in ease and perspicuity, if it were more abundantly supplied with such important elements of syntactical arrangement.

But let not the reader imagine that no prepositions exist in Sanscrit. It will be found by a reference to r. 165. that they exist in great abundance, but only as inseparable prefixes, qualifying the sense of roots, and the nouns and verbs derived from roots. There are only three, out of all this list of prepositions, that are ever used in government with nouns ; viz. Tā, ufa prati, and W anu ; and of these the two last are never so used, except as postpositions.

a. ut ā, generally signifying “as far as, up to," governs the ablative case; as, wraca,

as far as the ocean "; varit:, “up to Manu"; and rarely the accusative, as pat wisu:, “ for a hundred births. But instances are not common of words in regimen with this preposition.

b. ufit prati, generally signifying “at," " with regard to," against,” governs the accusative; as, Tiafo, “at the Ganges "; va ofa,“ with regard to justice "; rufa, “ against an enemy." It sometimes has the force of apud; as, ai ufat, “apud me, far as regards me."

c. ug is occasionally found governing the accusative; as, agg, after that." The preposition w, however, is not separated from the word

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