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formed from the cases of nouns; 2dly, as formed with affixes; 3dly, as of uncertain derivation; 4thly, as prefixes to other words.

Adverbs formed from the Cases of Nouns.

The following cases of nouns are used adverbially :

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a. The nominative or accusative neuter of any adjective; as, सत्यं, “ truly "; बहु, “ much "; शीघ्रं, क्षिप्रं, “ quickly "; युक्तं, “fitly "; समीपं, “ near"; लघु, “ lightly "; निर्भरं, अत्यन्तं गाढं, भृशं, “ exceedingly"; 4, “certainly "; f, "constantly";, “strongly." The nom. or acc. neuter of certain pronouns; as,, fore"; "wherefore," "when";n, so long as ";

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"there

यावत् ,

as long as"; for, "why?" The nom. or acc. neut. of certain substantives and obsolete words; as, "secretly ";, "willingly "; नाम, by name, ," "that is to say "; art art," repeatedly "; fari, "long ago ";,"pleasantly";, "now"; चिरं, night" (noctu).

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"by

b. The instrumental case of nouns and pronouns; as, fu,

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virtuously"; zfqua, 'southwards "; उत्तरेण, "northwards ";

àa,

,"above";:, "below"; :, "slowly"; "therefore "; ,"wherefore." The instr. case of certain obsolete nouns ; as, fatu, "for a long time"; fat, "in a short time "; f," by day"; f, "fortunately";,, "quickly "; ay, “now." c. The ablative case of a few nouns and pronouns; as, o, "forcibly"; at a distance"; "therefore";

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66 without cause, unexpectedly "; Jaun,

"from the north": and of a few obsolete nouns; as, f,

long time"; "afterwards."

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d. The locative case of a few nouns and obsolete words; as,

,"at night";, "far off";

"in the forenoon";

f¿, “instantly ";

‘suitably ";,"in front "; a, “at once";

अन्तरे,

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within."

Adverbs formed with Affixes.

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133. चित् chit, अपि api, and चन chana, may form Indefinite adverbs of time and place, when affixed to interrogative adverbs; as, from कदा, “ when?” कदाचित् कदापि and कदाचन, “ sometimes "; from कुत्र and क्क, “ where?” कुत्रचित् कुत्रापि, क्वचित्, क्वापि " somewhere "; from कुतस्, "whence?" and "from somewhere"; from कुतश्चित् कुतश्चन,

कर्हि,

“ when?” कर्हिचित्,

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at some time"; from, "how?" कथञ्चन, "somehow or other" (cf. r. 85.).

a. tas (changeable to : or, r. 29.) may be added to any noun, and to some pronouns, to form adverbs; as, from ч, ma:, "with effort"; from wife, fe:, "from the beginning"; from a (the proper crude of the pronoun), :, "thence "; similarly, अत:, इत:, “hence." This affix usually gives the sense of the prepositions with and from, and is often equivalent to the ablative case; as, in :, “from me ";, "from thee":" but it is sometimes vaguely employed to express other relations; as, qn, "behind the back"; "in the first place "; :, sides"; "in front "; wfum:, near to."

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b.tra, forming adverbs of Place; as, HI, "there";,"where?"

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यत्र,

सर्व्वत्र,

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"here";

on all

where"; "everywhere ";

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अन्यत्र, “ in another place"; एकत्र, “ in one place"; बहुत्र, “ in many places"; "there," in the next world."

c. tha and

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tham, forming adverbs of Manner; as, तथा, so"; यथा, “ as"; सर्व्वथा, “ in every way"; अन्यथा, "otherwise"; ,"how?", "thus."

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d. dā, forming adverbs of Time from pronouns, &c.; as, I, then"; ч, “when "; q, when?" एकदा, once"; fact, “constantly";, açı, “always.”

e., dhā, forming adverbs of Distribution from numeral adjectives; as,, "in one way"; fa, "in two ways";, "in six ways";, "in a hundred ways"; "in a thousand aga, ways"; "in many ways.”

fvat may be added to any noun to form adverbs of Similitude; as, from “like the sun"; from, सूर्य्यवत्, पूर्व्ववत्,

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g.shas, forming adverbs of Quantity; as,, “abundantly"; :, "in small quantities"; :, "singly";, "by hundreds and thousands ";:, "by degrees."

* These are the forms generally used for the ablative case of the personal pro

nouns, the proper ablative cases,

the crude, in compound words.

being never used except as substitutes for

Adverbs of Uncertain Derivation.

134. Of Affirmation.—¿i, ag, fag, va, “indeed ”; fq, “even.” मा, मास्म are prohibitive ;

a. Of Negation.-,, fe, “not."

as,, “do not."

augment being rejected, as

is often used with the 3d preterite, the

aff:, "do not " (p. 102.).

b. Of Interrogation. - किनु, कच्चित्, नु, ननु, किमुह, " whether?”

ag,

c. Of Comparison. – इव, “ like "; एव, एवं, " 90"; किम्पुनर्, “how much rather."

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d. Of Quantity.-,"exceedingly"; "a little "; 'once"; असकृत्, पुनः पुनर्, मुहुस्, भूयस्, “ repeatedly."

e. Of Manner.-fa, v, “so,

'for the most part";

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thus"; पुनर्, “ again"; प्रायस्, variously "; qua, "separately";

मिथ्या, “ falsely "; वृथा, मुधा, “ in vain "; अलं, “ enough "; झटिति, (cf. ¿kús), “quickly "; quff, "silently."

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f. Of Time.-, "to day," "now"; it, afa, इदानीं, सम्प्रति, तदानीं, “ then "; पुरा, “ formerly "; पुरस्, पुरस्तात्, प्राक्, * युगपत् "at once"; ", "instantly";,* सद्यस्, "afterwards "; g, "ever "; ig,

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न जातु, never."

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g. Of Place.-,"here"; "where?" af, “without." h. Of Doubt.-faifa, fur, "perhaps."

अपिनाम,

Adverbial Prefixes.

*

135. a prefixed to nouns and even to participles with a privative or negative force, corresponding to the Greek a, the Latin in, and the English in, im, un; as, from , "possible,”, “impossible"; from "touching" (pres. part.), weyan, स्पृशत्, touching." When a word begins with a vowel, is euphonically substituted; as,, "end";,"endless."

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a. fa ati, "excessively," very "; as, f, "very great." b. a, prefixed to imply "diminution"; as,

what pale."

c.

is prefixed with the same sense.

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some

kā orku, prefixed to words to imply "disparagement ";

as, कापुरुष, "a coward";, “deformed.”

d. दुर् dur, prefixed to imply "badly," or

"with difficulty"; as,

, "badly done" (cf. p. 15. note); , "not easily broken."

It is opposed to, and corresponds to the Greek duo.

* These, however, admit of derivation, and a few others less obviously.

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e. fnir and fa vi are prefixed to nouns like a with a privative or negative sense; as, fa, "powerless"; far, “unarmed"; but not to participles.

"well," "easily "; as,,

f.su, prefixed to imply done", "easily broken." and corresponds to the Greek ev. imply "very," "excessively "; as, en, excessively "; as,

"well

In this sense it is opposed to, It is also used for f, to ŋ, “very great.”

CONJUNCTIONS.

Copulative.

136. cha, "and," "also," corresponding to the Latin que and not et. It can never, therefore, stand as the first word in a sentence. It is not, however, like que, necessarily interposed between the first and second words, but may be admitted to any part of the sentence, being only excluded from the first place.

a. f, “for," like is always placed after its word, and never admitted to the first place in a sentence.

6. यदि, चेत्, अथ,

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b. ufa, a, "if"; w, "then," "now," used very commonly as an inceptive particle. ततस्, upon that," "then" (r. 133. a.). अन्यच्च, किच, अपरच, परच, अपिच, “again,' moreover," used very commonly before quotations.,

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"also."

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Disjunctive.

137. vā, “or," corresponds to the Latin ve, and is always वा placed after its word, being never admitted to the first place in a sentence. J, fang, "but "; the former is placed after its word; чufq, “although "; fq, "nevertheless," "yet," sometimes used as a correlative to the last; yen, fatal," or else ";, "or not "; f, "whether," "whether or no." स्म, ह, तु, वै, are expletives, often used in poetry with no other object than to fill up the verse.

PREPOSITIONS.

138. Of all the internal evidences of the antiquity of Sanscrit, there is none more decisive than the sparing use which this language makes of prepositions, in expressing the dependence of one word upon another. These aids to syntactical combination are always to be regarded as a result of modern refinement, incom

patible with the sternness and simplicity of the most ancient languages. Thus, even the Greek, which of all others is the most copiously provided with these auxiliaries, made comparatively small use of them in the days of Homer, and imitated the Sanscrit in expressing a variety of different relations by some of the cases of its nouns. It cannot be doubted that much ambiguity may result from this rigid rejection of any other aid to the construction of sentences than nominal inflection; but when, as in Sanscrit, even this inflection is but sparingly used, and long compounds are formed, consisting of words joined together in their crude state, the last only taking any case; and when even the assistance of a verb is often denied to guide the reader to the nature of the dependence of these words upon each other; we are forced to admit that this language would gain much in ease and perspicuity, if it were more abundantly supplied with such important elements of syntactical arrangement.

But let not the reader imagine that no prepositions exist in Sanscrit. It will be found by a reference to r. 165. that they exist in great abundance, but only as inseparable prefixes, qualifying the sense of roots, and the nouns and verbs derived from roots. There are only three, out of all this list of prepositions, that are ever used in government with nouns; viz. Tā, f prati, and anu; and of these the two last are never so used, except as

postpositions.

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प्रति

up to," governs the

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"up to

a. ā, generally signifying “as far as," ablative case; as, ag, "as far as the ocean"; Manu"; and rarely the accusative, as, “for a hundred births." But instances are not common of words in regimen with this preposition.

b. f prati, generally signifying “at," "with regard to," "against," governs the accusative; as, if, "at the Ganges ";

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uf, "with regard to justice ";f, "against an enemy." It sometimes has the force of apud; as, ifя, “apud me," as far as regards me."

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C. अनु is occasionally found governing the accusative; as, neg, after that."

The preposition, however, is not separated from the word

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