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1. The crude of the first class is formed from the root by affixing a, before which Guna, and rarely Wriddhi, of a final vowel is reguired ; as, from ji, " to conguer,' jaya (जय), “ conguering." Medial vowels are generally unchanged ; as, from cad, " to say,' oada, “ Saying' ; from tad, “ to vex,' tada, " vexing' : and final a, am, or am, are dropped ; as, from da, " to give," da (द), “ giving' ; from gam, " to go," ga (ग), " going' ; from jan, “ to be born," ja, “ being borm' (see their declension, r. 38. l. and p. Bl.). These nouns of agency are constantly used in poetry as a Substitute for the present participle,* sometimes governing the same case as this participle, but always united with the word which they govern in one compound ; thus, puraijaya (पुरञ्जय), " city-conguering' ; proyamcada (प्रियंवद), " speaking kind words' ; jalechara (जलेचर) “ going in the water' ; 8arasija, “ lake-born." The word which they govern often remains in the crude form ; as, from tejas and Kri, tejaskara, " light-making" (s remaining unchanged, in violation of r. 29); from mamas and /ri, mamohara, " mind-captivating" (r. 29.); from Daha८ and dā, ८ahada, “ giving much'' ; from स्रात्मन् and ज्ञा, सात्मज्ञः, " self-knowing.'' 2. The crude of the second class is formed from the 3d pers. sing. of the lst future of primitive verbs, by substituting the vowel चतृ ?i for the final vowel a, the nominative case being therefore identical with the 3d pers. sing. of that tense (see p. 77. r. 100. p. 37. and r. 4l.), Thus, from Dhokrā, " he will eat,' bh0%Ari, " an eater" (nom, Ghok/); from योडा, “ he will fight," योद्धृ, “ a fighter"; from 9achita, /āchitri ; from सोढा, सोदृ, &c. This noun of agency is sometimes, but rarely, found as a participle governing the case of the verb ; as, वक्ा वाक्यें, “ speaking a Speech' (Draupadiharanam, 32.); वोढा बहुमागैगt, “ bearing the Ganges" (Ratnāvali, p. I.), 3. The orude of the third class is formed in three ways. a. By adding in to the root, before which affix changes take place similar to those reguired before the causal affix ay (r. 107. c. d.); as, from Kri, kārin (कारिन्), " a doer"; from /lam, ghatin, “ a killer' ; from shā, shāyin, “ a sleeper' : / being inserted after roots in a, as, from pā, pāyin, “ a drinker' ; from da, dāyin, " a giver ` (see their declension, r. 43. iii. and p. 43.). This noun of agency has often, like the first class, the sense of a present participle, and is then always united with the crude of the word which it governs in one compound : thus, from mands and /ri, Inamoharin, “ mindcaptivating" (r. 29.). It sometimes, also, governs the case of the verb, being still united with the word which it governs in one compound ; as, grāmecāsin, " dwelling in the village.' b. By adding aka to the root before which affix Changes take place analogous to those before the causal ay (r. l07. c. d. e.fः); as, from Kri, kāraka (कारक), “ a doer," “ doing' ; from mā, nāyaka, “ a leader,' “ leading' ; from gra/, gra/ia/%a ; from sid/, sadhaka ; from /am, ghādaka ; from तुम्, दूषक; from kram, /tramaka ; from mamd, nandaka ; from stha, sthāpaka (see their declension, r.88. ii. and p.Bl.). This participial noun is also often joined with the crude of the noun which it governs in one compound word ; as, कार्ययेसाधक, “ effecting the business.” It is very rarely found governing the case of the verb ; as, मुकुलानि बुखक:, “ kissing the buds” (Ratnāvali, p. 7.). c. By adding ama to some few roots ending in consonants, after changes Similar to those reguired before the causal affix ; as, from nand, nandama, “ rejoicing' ; from दुष्, दूषणं, “ vitiating' ; from शुध्, शोधनं, “ cleansing " (see their declension, r. B8. iii. and p. 81.)
* Implying, however, habitual action, and therefore Something more than pre
l32. Adverbs, like nouns and verbs, may be divided into simple and compound. The latter are treated of in the next Chapter on Compound Words.
Simple adverbs may be classed under four heads ; Ist, as
formed from the cases of nouns ; 2dly, as formed with affixes ; 3dly, as of uncertain derivation ; 4thly, as prefixes to other words.
* These are the forms generally used for the ablative case of the personal pronouns, the proper ablative cases मत् , त्वत् being newer used except as substitutes for
the crude, in compound words.