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the expression, “having totally exterminated "; and in the following passage from Bhatti :
लतानुपातं कुसुमान्यगृह्णात् स नद्यवस्कन्दमुपास्पृशच्च
कुतूहलाच्चारुशिलोपवेशं काकुत्स्थ ईषत्स्मयमान आस्त
"The descendant of Kakutstha, smiling softly, repeatedly bending down the creepers, would pluck the blossoms; descending to the streams, would sip (the waters); seating himself on some variegated rock, would recline in admiration (of the scene)."
These participles generally imply repetition of the action, as in the passage above, and in this sense are themselves often repeated; as, dāyam, dāyam, “ having repeatedly given."
FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLES.
129. These are amongst the most common and useful of all participles, and may be classed under three heads: 1st, as formed with the affix tavya; 2dly, as formed with aniya; 3dly, as formed with य ya. These affixes yield a sense corresponding to the Latin dus and the English able and ible, and most commonly denote obligation or propriety and fitness. Thus, from bhuj, "to eat," bhoktavya, or bhojaniya, or bhojya, " edible," "eatable," "that ought to be eaten "; from vach, "to speak," vaktavya, or vachanīya, or vāchya, "to be spoken," "dicendus." They sometimes denote simple futurity; as,, "about to be eaten ": and as the passive past participle supplies the place of a past tense, so the future passive participle may supply the place of a future tense passive ; as in the following sentence, यदि पक्षी पतति तदा मया खादितव्यः, “ If the bird falls, then it shall be eaten by me.'
Formation of Future Passive Participles with the affix
a. These are formed by substituting tavya for tā, the termination of the 3d pers. sing. of the 1st future. Thus, from ksheptā, "he will throw," ksheptavya, "to be thrown"; kartā, “he will do," kartavya, “to be done"; from bhavitā, he will be,' bhavitavya, "about to be." And in the case of roots ending in consonants rejecting i, whatever changes take place before tā, the same take place before tavya (see p. 80.); thus, tyaktā, tyaktavya (relinquendus); et, ng; ger, ge; boddhā, boddhavya; dagdhā, dagdharya, &c.
Formation of Future Passive Participles with the affix
b. This affix is added directly to the root, without any other change than the Guna of the radical vowel. Thus, from fa chi, "to gather," chayaniya, "to be gathered"; from bhū, bhavaniya; from कृ. करणीय (r. 21.);
from स्पृश्, स्पर्शनीय; from कृष्
from लिख, लेखनीय; from शुघ्, शोधनीय ; कर्षणीय (r. 21.). A final diphthong
is changed to ā; as, from ✯, w; from ✯, mala.
Formation of Future Passive Participles with the affix ■ ya.
c. Before this affix, as before all others beginning with y, certain changes of final vowels become necessary. If a root end in ā, or in e, ai, o, changeable to ā, this vowel becomes e (cf. p. 85. a.); as, from mā, “to measure," meya, "to be measured," "measurable"; from hā, heya; from dhyai, dhyeya, &c.
d. If in i, i, u, or u, these vowels take Guna; as, from chi, cheya. But the Guna o is changed to av, and sometimes e to ay, before ya (as if before a vowel): thus, from bhu, bhavya; from ji, "to conquer," jayya. The Guna o, however, oftener passes into āv before y; as, from,; from plu, plāvya.
e. If in ri or rī these vowels take Vriddhi; as, from कृ, कार्य्य. f. Sometimes if a root end in a short vowel no change takes place, but t is interposed, after the analogy of the indeclinable participle formed with ya (p. 144. a.), so that the crude of the future participle is not distinguishable from the indeclinable, except by the absence of a preposition. Thus, from ji, jitya, "conquerable";
from stu, stutya, "laudable"; from kri, kritya, “practicable."
g. If a root end in a single consonant with a medial a, Vriddhi sometimes takes place; as, from grah, grahya: but not always; as, from shak, shakya; from sal, sahya; from badh, badhya; and rarely if the final is a labial; as, from gam, gamya; from labh, labhya.
h. If with a medial i or u, Guna generally takes place; as, from bhuj, bhojya; from lih, lehya.
i. If with a medial ri, no change takes place; as, from, . j. A final ch may be changed to k, and j to g; and other changes may take place, some of which are similar to those before the y of passives; as, from pach, pākya; from vach, vākya; from bhuj,
bhogya; from grah, grihya, as well as grāhya; from vad, ūdya ; from yaj, ijya; from shās, shiṣhya (p. 90. d. f.); from khan, kheya.
k. Many of these latter are used as substantives, and there are other examples of substantives formed with this affix; as, (fem.), “a wife," from, "to support," &c.
Declension of Future Passive Participles.
They are all declined like nouns of the first class, pp. 31, 32. Thus, kartavya; nom. m. f. n. kartavyah, kartavyā, kartavyam. milarly, karaniya and kārya.
PARTICIPLES OF THE SECOND FUTURE.
Formation of the Crude.
130. These are not very common. They are of two kinds, either as belonging to the parasmaipada, or to the ātmanepada; the former being formed by changing anti, the termination of the 3d plur. of the 2d fut., into at; the latter by changing ante into amāna. Thus, from karishyanti and karishyante, "they will do," karishyat and karishyamāņa (fun fur), “about to do"; from the passive 2d fut. vakshyante, "they will be said," vakshyamāṇa, "about to be said."
These participles, in the mode of their formation from the 3d pers. plur., by the affixes at and amāna, resemble present participles, r. 123.
Declension of Participles of the Second Future.
a. Their declension also conforms to that of present participles. Those of the parasmaipada are declined according to p. 136. b., and those of the atmanepada according to p. 137. b.
PARTICIPIAL NOUNS OF AGENCY.
131. These have been already incidentally noticed in Chap. III. As, however, they partake of the nature of participles, and are of great practical utility, some further mention of them is necessary in the present chapter. They may be classed under three heads; 1st, as formed from the root; 2dly, as formed from the 1st future ; 3dly, as formed from the causal base.
1. The crude of the first class is formed from the root by affixing a, before which Guna, and rarely Vriddhi, of a final vowel is required; as, from ji, "to conquer," jaya (4), “conquering." Medial vowels are generally unchanged; as, from vad, "to say," vada, "saying"; from tud, "to vex," tuda, "vexing" and final ā, am, or an, are dropped; as, from dā, “to give,” da (₹), “giving"; from gam, "to go," ga (), "going"; from jan, "to be born," ja, "being born" (see their declension, r. 38. 1. and p. 31.). These nouns of agency are constantly used in poetry as a substitute for the present participle,* sometimes governing the same case as this participle, but always united with the word which they govern in one compound; thus, puranjaya (g), “city-conquering”; priyamvada (f), "speaking kind words"; jalechara () "going in the water"; sarasija, “lake-born." The word which they govern often remains in the crude form; as, from tejas and kri, tejaskara, “light-making" (s remaining unchanged, in violation of r. 29.); from manas and hṛi, manohara, “ mind-captivating" (r. 29.); from bahu and da, bahuda, "giving much"; from and, dā, ,"self-knowing."
2. The crude of the second class is formed from the 3d pers. sing. of the 1st future of primitive verbs, by substituting the vowel ri for the final vowel ā, the nominative case being therefore identical with the 3d pers. sing. of that tense (see p. 77. r. 100. p. 37. and r. 41.), Thus, from bhoktā, “he will eat," bhokṭri, “an eater” (nom. bhoktā); from , "he will fight,", "a fighter"; from yāchitā, yāchitṛi; from, g, &c. This noun of agency is
sometimes, but rarely, found as a participle governing the case of the verb; as, “speaking a speech" (Draupadīharaṇam, Яi, "bearing the Ganges" (Ratnavali, p. 1.).
3. The crude of the third class is formed in three ways.
a. By adding in to the root, before which affix changes take place similar to those required before the causal affix ay (r. 107. c. d.); as, from kri, kārin (af), “a doer"; from han, ghātin, killer"; from shī, shūyin, “a sleeper": y being inserted after roots
* Implying, however, habitual action, and therefore something more than present time.
in ā, as, from pā, pāyin, “a drinker"; from dā, dāyin, a giver (see their declension, r. 43. iii. and p. 43.). This noun of agency has often, like the first class, the sense of a present participle, and is then always united with the crude of the word which it governs in one compound: thus, from manas and hri, manoharin, "mindcaptivating" (r. 29.). It sometimes, also, governs the case of the verb, being still united with the word which it governs in one compound; as, grāmevāsin, “dwelling in the village."
b. By adding aka to the root before which affix changes take place analogous to those before the causal ay (r. 107. c. d. e. f.); as, from kri, kāraka (), "a doer," "doing"; from ni, nāyaka, a leader," "leading"; from grah, grāhaka; from sidh, sūdhaka; from han, ghātaka; from 4,4; from kram, kramaka; from nand, nandaka; from sthā, sthāpaka (see their declension, r. 38. ii. and p. 31.). This participial noun is also often joined with the crude of the noun which it governs in one compound word; as, “effecting the business.” It is very rarely found governing the case of the verb; as, golfa gan, “kissing the buds" (Ratnāvali, p. 7.).
c. By adding ana to some few roots ending in consonants, after changes similar to those required before the causal affix; as, from nand, nandana, “rejoicing"; from 4, "vitiating"; from शुघ्, शोधन, ,, "cleansing" (see their declension, r. 38. iii. and p. 31.)
132. Adverbs, like nouns and verbs, may be divided into simple and compound. The latter are treated of in the next Chapter on Compound Words.
Simple adverbs may be classed under four heads; 1st, as