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When a root is compounded with a preposition or indeclinable word, the indeclinable participle cannot be formed with tica-* The affix य ga is then used, and the rules which regulate its annexation to the root are some of them analogous to those which prevail in other cases in which g/ is affixed ; see the rules for the formation of neuters (r. 89.), passives (p. 90.), and the benedictive mood (p. 85.). a. But if a root end in a short vowel, instead of any lengthening of this vowel, d is interposed ; as, from āshri, “ to take refuge '' (root त्रि), āshritya, “ having taken refuge "; from निश्चि, निश्चित्य ; from उल्लु, उलुत्य ; from संस्कृ, संस्कृत्य ; from निःमृं, निःमृत्य . The lengthening of the radical vowel by coalition does not prevent this rule ; as, from atā (ati with ), atitya. ८. If a root end in long a, ं, or a, no change takes place : as, from oihā, oi/%āya ; from upakrā, apakrāya ; from oidhā, oi//tāya. c. If in long चू ?, this vowel becomes ir ; as, from अवकृ ,
Aduerbial Indeclimable Participle.
There is another indeclinable participle yielding the Same Sense as those formed with tacā and gya, but of very rare 0ccurrence except in the Bhatti kāvya. It is eguivalent to the accusative case of a noun derived from a root, used adverbially ; and is formed by adding am to the root, before which affix changes of the radical vowel take place, Similar to those reguired before the causal affix tg/ (p. 86. c.). Thus, from ???, ‘* to lead,' māyam, “ having led ''; from pā, ** to drink,' pāyam, “ having drunk "; from hue, hto7/um ; from pach, pāchum ; from kship, kshepam ;
from ham, ** to kill,” ghātam. It often occupies the last place in a compound ; as in
* It is retained in some few instances; as, विगणय्य, “ having calculated''; साकलय्य, “ having imagined "; सद्यय्य, “ having narrated.'' ी Thore are one or two instances of compounded roots formed with ttpā; as, अनुध्यात्वा(from ध्ये), Rām. 1. 2. 20. Especially in the case of causals, as निवज्ञेयित्वा . U
the expression समूलघातं, * having totally exterminated"; and in the following passage from Bhatti :
** The descendant of Kakutstha, Smiling Softly, repeatedly bending down the creepers, would pluck the blossoms ; descending to the streams, would sip (the waters) ; seating himself on some variegated rock, would recline in admiration (of the scene).''
These participles generally imply repetition of the action, as in the passage above, and in this Sense are themselves often repeated; as, dayam, dag/dm, “ having
FUTURE PASSIWE PARTICIPLES.
129. These are amongst the most common and useful of all participles, and may be classed under three heads : lst, as formed with the affix तव्य datya ; 2dly, as formed with अनीय anāya ; 3dly, as formed with य ya. These affixes yield a sense corresponding to the Latin dus and the English able and ible, and most commonly denote obligation or propriety and fitness. Thus, from bhagj, “ to eat,' Ghoktatya, Or bhdjamāya, or bh0iya, " edible,' “ eatable,'' ‘‘ that ought to be eaten '; from oac/, “ to speak," caktatya, or pachamāya, or gāc/iya, “ to be Spoken,' “ dicendas.' They sometimes denote simple futurity ; as, भोक्तव्य , “ about to be eaten ': and as the passive past participle Supplies the place of a past tense, So the future passive participle may Supply the place of a future tense passive ; as in the following sentence, यदि पछ्'ी पतति तदा मया खादितव्य:, “ If the bird falls, then it shall be eaten by me.'
Formation of Facture Passice Participles foith t/te d/fic तव्य tavya.
a. These are formed by Substituting tatya for fa, the termination of the 3d pers. Sing. of the Ist future. Thus, from क्षेप्मा Ashepta, “ he will throw," क्षेप्तव्य %sheptatya, “ to be thrown "; /6artळ, “ he will do,' /6ardatya, “ to be done '; from Dhapitā, “ he will be,' ८/auitatya, “ about to be." And in the case of roots ending in consonants rejecting i, whatever changes take place before da, the same take place before tatya (see p. 80.); thus, //a/%/ā, /yaktarya (relinguendas) ; प्रष्टा , प्रष्टव्य ; द्रष्टा , द्रष्टव्य ; Goddhā, Goddhatya ; dagdha, dag///arya, &C.
FUTURB PASSIWF) PARTICIPLES. 147।।
Formation of Fature Passire Participles icit/ the a/fic सनीय aniya.
Formation of Fature Passice Participles icith the a/iaं य ya.
They are all declined like nouns of the first class, pp. 31, 32. ThuS, kardatya ; nom. m. f n. kartatya/), kardatyā, kartatyam. Similarly, karajaiya and kārya.
PARTIOIPILES OR THE SECONID RUTURE.
Formatiom 0f the Crude.
130. These are not very common. They are of two kinds, either as belonging to the parasmaipada, or to the ātmanepada ; the former being formed by changing anti, the termination of the 3d plur. of the 2d fut., into at ; the latter by changing ande into amāma. ThuS, from Kariskyamti and Karishyamte, “ they will do,' kariskyat and Karishyamāna (करिष्यत् करिष्यमाणं) “ about to do' ; from the passive 2d fut. caks/kyamade, “ they will be said,' oaks/ं/amāna, “ about to be Said.''
These participles, in the mode of their formation from the 3d
pers. plur., by the affixes at and amāma, resemble present participles, r. l23.
Declemsiom 0f Participles of the Second Fature.
a. Their declension also conforms to that of present participles. Those of the parasmaipada are declined according to p. l36. ८., and those of the ātmanepada according to p. l37. b.
PARTIOIPIAI, NOUNS OE' AGENOW.
l31. These have been already incidentally moticed in Chap. III. As, however, they partake of the nature of participles, and are of great practical utility, some further mention of them is necessary in the present chapter. They may be classed under three heads ; lst, as formed from the root ; 2dly, as formed from the lst future ; 3dly, as formed from the causal base.