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to go," gata ; from yam, yata ; from ram, rata ; from tan, tata ; from han, hata : but retain them if i is inserted; as, from swan, swanita. From jan, “to be born," is formed jāta ; from khan, khāta ; the a being lengthened.
p. Those roots ending in m, of the 4th conjugation, which lengthen a medial a before the conjugational affix y, also lengthen it before ta, and change m to n as in the futures ; thus, from kram (r. 89. a.), krānta ; from bhrām, bhrānta ; from sham, shānta ; from dam, dānta ; from ksham, kshānta ; from klam, klānta. Similarly, from vam, vānta ; from kam, kānta.
q. From स्काय, “ to swell," is formed स्फीत; from प्याय, पीन or प्यान.
r. The following are quite anomalous; from pach, "to cook," pakra ; from yą, “to dry,” ya; from witę, “to be drunk,” xita.
2. Derived from Causal Bases. r. In forming the passive past participles from these, the causal affix ay is rejected, but the inserted i is always assumed. Thus, from kāray, kūrita; from sthāpay, sthāpita ; from veday, vedita.
3. Derived from Desiderative Bases. 8. In adding ta to a desiderative base, the only rule to be observed is the invariable insertion of i ; as, from pipās, pipāsita ; from chikīrsh, chikirshita ; from īps, āpsita.
4. Derived from Nominal Bases. t. There are in Sanscrit certain participles, which are said to be formed by adding ita to nouns. Thus, from falfus, "loose, fitfuron, “loosened "; from fa, “crooked,” faren, “curved." These may be regarded as the passive participles of the transitive nominal verbs ffuroufat, farafa (r. 122. 6.); and whenever this kind of adjective is found, it may indicate that a nominal verb is in use, whence the participle is derived.
Declension of Passive Past Participles. They all follow the declension of the first class of nouns (r. 48. 49. 50.), and in this exhibit a perfect similarity to the declension of the Latin participle in tus. Thus, krita, nom. masc. fem. neut. kritah, kritā, kritam.
* Since h is equivalent to s and a to u, the nom. might be written -tus, -tā, -tum.
ACTIVE PAST PARTICIPLES.
126. These are of two kinds; 1st, those derived from the passive past participle; 2dly, those derived from the second preterite. These latter rarely occur. The former are much used (especially in modern Sanscrit, and in the writings of commentators), to supply the place of a perfect tense active. Thus, tat kritavān, “ he did that "; tat kritavatī, “ she did that." They may also be used with the auxiliaries as and bhū, to form a compound perfect tense; thus, tat kritavān asti, “ he has done that "; tat kritavān bhavishyati, “he will have done that."
Formation of the Crude. a. In the case of those derived from the passive past participle, the crude is easily formed by adding vat to that participle. Thus, from krita, kritavat (nama); from dagdha, dagdhavat ; from ukta, uktavat ; from bhinna, bhinnavat; from sthāpita, sthāpitavat, &c.
b. In the case of those derived from the 2d pret., either vas or ivas is added to the base of that tense, as formed in the dual and plur. Vas, when the base in the dual and plur. consists of more than one syllable ; as, from vivid (p. 96.), vividwas ; from chichi (p. 96.), chichivas. But ivas, when the base in the dual and plur. consists of one syllable only; as from ten (p. 96.) tenivas; from jagm (p. 77. e.), jagmivas. There is an ātmanepada participle of the 2d pret. formed by adding ana to the base ; thus, vividāna, chichyāna, tenāna, jagmana.
Declension 127. Those formed from the passive past participle are declined r. 62. ; thus, kritavat, nom. masc. fem. neut. kritavān, kritavatī, r. 49., kritavat.
Those formed from the 2d pret. are declined in the last paragraph of p. 44. ; thus, vividwas, nom. masc. fem. neut. vividwān, vividuşhi, vividwah; and chichivas, nom. chichivān, chichyushi, chichivah. Those formed with ivas do not retain i in the fem. ; thus, tenivas, nom. masc. fem. neut. tenivān, tenushi,* tenivah ; and jagmivas, nom. jagmivān, jagmushi, jagmivah. The ātmanepada participles are declined like nouns of the first class, p. 31.
* Similarly the instr. case masc. is tenushā. There seems, however, much difference of opinion as to the rejection of i, and some Grammarians make the fem. tenyushi, and the inst. masc. tenyushā.
INDECLINABLE PAST PARTICIPLES.
128. These may be classed under two heads : Ist, as formed by affixing at twā to uncompounded roots; as, from bhū, “to be," bhūtwā, “having been "; 2dly, as formed by affixing a ya to roots compounded with prepositions or other adverbial prefixes; as, from anubhū, anubhūya, “having perceived "; from sajjbhū, sajjābhūya, “having become ready." These indeclinable participles are of the utmost importance, and some of the chief peculiarities of the syntax of the language are to be traced to the frequency of their occurrence.
The sparing use made in Sanscrit composition of relative pronouns, conjunctions, and connective particles, is partly to be attributed to the continual appearance of these indeclinable participles, by means of which the sense of a whole clause may be suspended, and sentence after sentence strung together without the aid of a single copulative. The sense involved in them is generally expressed by the English " when," "after," " having," or "by "; thus, tat kritwā (atra grat), “when he had done that," "after he had done that,” “having done that," " by doing that."
Formation of the Indeclinable Participle from Uncompounded Roots.
a. When the root stands alone and uncompounded, the indeclinable participle is formed with a twa.*
This affix is closely allied to the ta of the passive past participle, r. 125., insomuch that the rules for the annexation of ta to the root apply equally to the indeclinable affix twā. The formation, therefore, of one participle generally involves that of the other; thus, kshipta, “ thrown,” kshiptwā, “ having thrown"; an, “ done," कृत्वा, “ having done "; so स्थित, स्थित्वा ; दृष्ट, दृष्ट्वा ; दन, दत्वा; पीत , पीत्वा; क्रान्त, क्रान्वा; गृहीत , गृहीत्वा ; उपित, उपित्वा ; उक्त, उक्त्रा ; बुद्ध, बुद्धा; अढ, ऊदा; हित (from धा), हित्वा. And where i is inserted there is often an optional change of the radical vowel to Guna, as
* There are one or two instances in which an uncompounded root takes y; as, wan, “having reverenced.”—Manu, 7th Book, 145. I. 4. Mahābh. 3. 8017.
in the passive participle (r. 125. h.); thus, dyutitwā or dyotitwā from dyut; and always takes Guna (Hfürt). There are
a few instances in which the inserted i is admitted before twā, although rejected before ta; as, lagna, lajstrā; and, vice versá, as fan, yet.
6. A penultimate nasal is not always rejected before twā; thus, from ET, but tant or ta, the rejection in the indeclinable participle being generally optional.
C. The causal verb, which rejects its characteristic ay before the ita of the passive participle, retains it before itwā.
Thus, sthāpita, " made to stand” (from the causal base sthāpay), but sthāpayitwā, having made to stand."
d. The only important variation from the passive participle occurs in those roots which take na for ta (r. 125. a.). In such roots no corresponding change takes place of twā to nwā. Thus, from Į, td, but afcat (or FUATT); from [, wit, but hat; from छिद्, छिन, but छिया; from भन्न्, भग्न, but भंसा or भत्ता; from रुज, Fr, but Thi; from TT, eta, but fert, “having quitted” (not distinguishable from fert, “having placed,” from yt).
Formation of the Indeclinable Participle from Compounded Roots.
When a root is compounded with a preposition or indeclinable word, the indeclinable participle cannot be formed with twā.* The affix y ya is then used, and the rules which regulate its annexation to the root are some of them analogous to those which prevail in other cases in which y is affixed; see the rules for the formation of neuters (r. 89.), passives (p. 90.), and the benedictive mood (p. 85.).
a. But if a root end in a short vowel, instead of any lengthening of this vowel, t is interposed; as, from ashri, “to take refuge (root f), āshritya, “having taken refuge "; from farfar, farven; from उन्मु, उत्प; from संस्कृ, संस्कृय; from निःमृ, निःमृत्य .
The lengthening of the radical vowel by coalition does not prevent this rule; as, from atē (ati with i), atītya.
b. If a root end in long ā, ī, or ū, no change takes place : as, from vihā, vihāya ; from upakrī, upakrīya; from vidhū, vihhūya.
C. If in long trī, this vowel becomes ēr; as, from wam, अवकीर्य. .
But from tų, migd.
d. Final diphthongs pass into ā: as, from fel, afera (also परिखीय); from अभिध्यै, अभिध्याय; from अवसो, अवसाय. But from सो with व्यव, व्यवस्य; from आहे, पाहूय.
e. A penultimate nasal is generally rejected ; as, from samāsanj, samāsajya ; from pramanth, pramathya (used adverbially, “violently"); but from आशा, आशय; from आलिङ्ग , आलिङ्गय .
f. If a root end in a consonant the general rule is, that no change takes place; as, from nikship, nikshipya ; from prāp (pra and ap), prāpya ; from vīksh (vi and īksi), vīkshya.
g. But some roots ending in am and an may optionally reject the nasal, and interpose t between short a and ya; as, from nirgam, nirgatya or nirgamya; from nihan, nihatya. Jan and khan instead of interposing t, lengthen the a; as, from utkhan, utkhāya.
h. The changes which take place in certain roots before the y of the passive (p. 90. f.) are preserved before ya ; as, from faue, faqa; from win, waa; from ūvyadh, āvidhya; from vivas, vyushya. Pe lengthens its vowel before ya; as, farem.
i. In affixing ya to causal bases the characteristic ay is generally rejected :* as, from prabodhay, prabodhya (1919); from gety, प्रसार्य; from सन्दर्शय , सन्दर्य.'
Adverbial Indeclinable Participle. There is another indeclinable participle yielding the same sense as those formed with twā and ya, but of very rare occurrence except in the Bhatti kāvya. It is equivalent to the accusative case of a noun derived from a root, used adverbially ; and is formed by adding am to the root, before which affix changes of the radical vowel take place, similar to those required before the causal affix ay (p. 86. c.). Thus, from nī, “ to lead,” nāyam, “having led "; from pā, “ to drink,” pāyam, “having drunk"; from hwe, hwāyam ; from pach, pāchum; from kship, kshepam ; from han,“ to kill,” ghātam. It often occupies the last place in a compound; as in
* It is retained in some few instances; as, fartuzy, “having calculated"; untetice, “ having imagined ”; H2224, “having narrated.”
+ There are one or two instances of compounded roots formed with twā; as, GWIAT(from sà), Rām. 1. 2. 20. Especially in the case of causais, as faasfumat.