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although in the very first instance, and in others which follow, the participle is deducible directly from a tense.
Formation of the Crude. 123. These are the only participles that have any affinity with the conjugational structure of the verb. The crude is formed by substituting at for anti, the termination of the 3d person plural of the present tense, so that the peculiarities of conjugation necessarily appear in the participle. Thus, from pachanti,“ they cook (3d plur. pres. of v, Ist conj.), comes un pachat, “ cooking "; from ghnanti (3d plur. of han, 2d conj.), ghnat ; from afort, “they go,” 44, “ going "; from opfert, a; from juhwati (3d plur. of hu, 3d conj.), Je ni juhwat; from nrityanti (4th conj.), nrityat; from chinwanti (5th conj.), fan chinwat; from āpnuvanti (5th conj.), āpnuvat; from rundhanti (rudh, 7th conj.), rundhat; from kurvanti (7, 8th conj.), kurvat ; from punanti (pū, 9th conj.), punat. So again from santi (3d plur. of as, “to be”), sat; from the causal darshayanti (p. 125.), darshayat; from the desiderative ditsanti (p. 130. e.), ditsat.
a. It has been remarked (p. 62. and p. 89., note t.) that the passive verb may sometimes assume a parasmaipada inflection ; and that all the neuter verbs placed under the 4th conjugation may be considered as so many examples of this form of the passive. This theory is corroborated by the fact of the existence of a parasmaipada present participle derivable from a passive base. Thus from 294, 29471, “ being seen"; from aitų, atya, “ being gathered.”
b. This in general conforms to r. 63. Thus, yan, nom. sing. du. pl. masc. rea pachan, yeni pachantau, re: pachantah ; fem. पचनी, पचन्यौ, पचन्यः; neut. पचन , पचन्ती, पचति .
c. But in irregular primitives of the 3d conj., and all verbs from polysyllabic roots, and all other verbs which reject the nasal from the plural of the parasmaipada (see p. 69. note), the nom. sing. masc. is identical with the crude, and ends in at instead of an; and the nasal is, moreover, rejected from the du. and pl.
masc., and from the fem. Thus, bibhrat (from , “to bear,” 3d conj.), nom. sing. du. pl. masc. bibhrat, bibhratau, bibhratah ; fem. bibhratī, bibhratyau, bibhratyah. So also jāgrat (from m) and shāsat (from me. They also drop the nasal in the dual neut.
d. It must also be taken as a general rule, that all other irregular primitives of the 2d, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th conjugations reject the nasal in the feminine, although they retain it in the masculine. Thus, adat (from ad, 2d conj.), nom. masc. adan, adantau, adantah; fem. adati, &c.; and rundhat (from rudh, 7th conj.), nom. masc. rundhan, rundhantau, &c., fem. rundhatī, &c. But this rule is not universal, for kurvat (from a, 8th conj.) is kurvantī in the nom. fem.
PRESENT PARTICIPLES. ATMANEPADA.
Formation of the Crude. 124. The crude is formed by substituting amāna for ante, the termination of the 3d plur. pres. of regular primitive and passive verbs; and by substituting āna for ate, the termination of the 3d plur. pres. of irregular primitives. Causal verbs take either amāna or āna, but more frequently the latter. Thus, from qant pachante, rahta pachamāna; from fag (sthā, 1st conj.), frutat; from नृत्यन्ते (4th conj.), नृत्यमान; from लिम्पन्ने (lip, 6th conj.), लिम्पमान; from the causal darshayante (p. 126.), either darshayamāna, or, more frequently, darshayāna ; from vedayante, vedayāna ; from the desiderative ditsante, ditsamāna.
a. But from gan bruvate (q, 2d conj.), garu bruvāna; from ya (dhā, 3d conj.), zuta; from chinwate (5th conj.), chinwāna ; from युनते (7th conj.), युनान; from कुछते (sth conj.), कुवाण; from पुनते (9th conj.), पुनान.
The root we, “to sit” (2d conj.), makes आसीन for आसान. .
Declension. 6. These participles are declined like nouns of the first class,
Thus, pachamāna, nom. masc. pachamānah, fem. pachamānā, neut. pachamānam.
Passive Past Participle. —Formation of the Crude. 125. This is the most useful derivative in the language, and is
of constant occurrence. It corresponds to the Latin participle in tus, and, like it, often supplies the place of the past tense. In neuter roots, especially those which imply motion of any kind, it is used actively, and often stands for the perfect tense active; as, faat ufay:, "he entered his hole"; ATA TA:, "he went to the village." And in all cases this participle may be used to supply the place of the past tenses of the passive verb, the agent being placed in the instrumental case, and the participle agreeing with the object: as, ita para foaifa," by him the bonds were cut. Moreover, it may be used with the auxiliary verbs w and to be," to form a compound past or future tense, as the Latin participle is used with the auxiliary sum. Thus, gintaf, "he has obtained "; ut faufa, “ he will have obtained "; asfAH, “I am gone "; anafest, “it is done.” Lastly, it is sometimes used in the neuter gender for a substantive; as, F, "a gift "; e, “ an excavation.”+
This participle may be regarded as falling under four heads : 1st, as derived from roots; 2dly, as derived from causal bases ; 3dly, as derived from desiderative bases; 4thly, as derived from nominal bases.
1. Derived from Roots. a. In general the crude is formed by adding ta (a) directly to the root; as, from fag kship, “to throw," kshipta, “thrown"; or if the root end in rī, by adding na (a); as, from a krī, “to scatter," ait kārna, “scattered.” Some roots in ū, ī, and ū, some in ai preceded by two consonants, with some of those in d, r, and j, rejecting inserted i, also take na instead of ta.
6. Roots ending in vowels do not admit inserted i in this
* This kind of construction is exceedingly common in Sanscrit, and has been transferred from it to Hindūstani. The particle ne in this latter language corresponds most clearly to the Sanscrit na, which is the usual sign of the instrumental case, and can never occasion any difficulty if it be regarded in this light.
† In a few instances this participle has a present signification ; as, aita, fearing," fen, “standing."
participle, although they may admit it in the futures* (p. 79. a. 6. c.), but attach ta or na directly to the root : as, from yā, yāta ; from ji, jita ; from nī, nāta ; from shru, shruta ; from bhū, bhūta ; from fit, quit; from a, ru (r. 21.); from lī, līna ; from , gtur; from lū, lūna.
C. But in certain cases the final vowel of the root is changed ; thus, some roots in a change ā to i before ta : as, from sthā, sthita ; from mā, mita; from daridrā, daridrita. Dhā, “to place, becomes hita ; dā, “ to give," datta ;t pā, “ to drink,” pāta. Hā, “ to quit," becomes hi before na (ETA). Some roots in ū take both na and ta; as, from a, u and w; from at with the preposition face, faaru and faata.
d. Roots in Urī change ri to ēr before na, which passes into na (T) by r. 21.; as, from L. “to pass,” nid, “passed."
But from q, gd, “full."
e. The root dhe, to suck," becomes dhī before ta ; hwe, to call,” hū (TT); TT); ve,
to weave, f. Roots in ai generally change ai to ā, before na or ta; as, from mlai, “ to fade," nota mlana; from , "to meditate," wa; from £, “to purify,” çta; from #,"to rescue,” aru or ata. But from it, “to sing," fin; from,“ to waste," WTA.
g. Roots in to change o to i; as, from 80, sita ; from it, fara.
h. Those roots ending in consonants which take the inserted i (p. 79. d.) generally take this vowel also in the past participle. In such cases ta is affixed, and never na; as, from pat, “to fall," patita, “ fallen "; and if u or ri precede the final consonant of the root, these vowels may take Guna; as, from dyut, dyotita; from मृष्
. Grah, lengthens the inserted i (TEIA, “taken ”). i. Roots ending in consonants which forbid the inserted i must be combined with ta, agreeably to the rules at pp. 67, 68. Whatever form, therefore, the final consonant assumes before the termination tū of the 1st future (p. 80.), the same form will gene
* शी, however, makes शयित , and पू may be पवित as well as पूत.
+ When prepositions are prefixed to datta, the initial da may be rejected; thus, ātta for ādatta,“ taken ”; pratta for pradatta, “bestowed"; vyātta for vyādatta, "expanded ”; paritta for paridatta ; sūtta for sudatta, the i and u being lengthened.
rally be preserved before the ta of the past participle; so that, in many cases, this participle may be derived from the 3d sing. of the 1st future by shortening the final ā, and, if necessary, restoring the radical vowel to its original state. Thus, taking some of the examples at p. 80; shaktā, “ he will be able,” gives shakta, "able"; sektā, “ he will sprinkle," sikta," sprinkled "; moktā, mukta ; het, yr; tyaktā, tyakta ; yoktā, yukta ; HET, TE; ATÊT, LE; seddhā, siddha ; boddhā, buddha ; yoddhā, yuddha; ksheptā, kshipta ; loptā, lupta ; sarptā, sripta ; kalptā, klripta ; labdhā, labdha ; lobdhā, lubdha ; वेष्टा, विष्ट ; द्रष्टा, दृष्ट; क्रोष्टा, क्रुष्ट ; तष्टा, तष्ट; एष्टा, इष्ट ; द्वेष्टा, द्विष्ट; दोष्टा, दुष्ट ; क्रष्टा, कृष्ट ; दग्धा, दग्ध; सोढा, सोढ; नद्धा, नद्ध; गाढा, गाढ; लेढा, लोढ (p. 68. h.); देग्धा, दिग्ध; बेग्धा, स्निग्ध; रोढा, रूढ (p. 68. h.); मोढा, मूढ; or मोग्धा, मुग्ध; दोग्धा, दुग्ध; गोढा, गूढ.
j. Most roots ending in d, forbidding the inserted i, take na instead of ta, and are combined with na, agreeably to r. 15; as, from pad, panna ; from ad, anna ; from bhid, bhinna ; from HG, with the preposition fa, faum (r. 30. and 21.)
k. Those roots ending in j, which take na, change j to g before na; as, from vij, vigna ; from ruj, rugna. So from masj, rejecting the s, magna; from lasj, lagna.
l. Some roots which admit į in the futures, forbid it in this participle; as, धृष्, in Ist fut. धर्षिता, in part. घृष्ट ; so अ, अर्दिता, but अर्ज (with a prefixed, आतं, “ pained"); दृह, दहिता, but दृढ ; मद्, मदिता,
See also p. 109. m. If in forming the passive base (p. 90. f.), or in the 2d pret. (p. 76. d.), the v or y contained in a root are changed to their semi-vowels u or i, the same change takes place in the pass. participle; thus, from vach, "to say,” ukta ; from vap, upta ; from E, अढ3; from खप, सुप्त;
from यन्, इष्ट. Similarly, from दिव्, खून or द्यूत ; from A, go.
n. Some other changes which take place in forming the passive base (see p. 90. d. f.) are preserved before ta ; thus, from me, fe ; from 4, fag. And when the root ends in two conjunct consonants, of which the first is a nasal, this nasal is rejected; as, from बन्ध, बद्ध; from भंश, भष्ट ; from अन्न, अक्त; from सन, सक्त; from भन्न्, भग्न : but not if i is inserted ; as, from खण्इ, खण्डित ; from क्रन्द्, क्रन्दित (except मन्थ्, making मथित).
0. Roots ending in m or n reject these nasals before ta ; as,