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formed from roots, by the addition of ay to the crude. But the final vowel or final consonant, and preceding vowel of the crude, must be rejected before this affix is annexed. Thus, from oastra, “cloth,' is formed oastray, “ to clothe " (3d sing. वस्त्रयति bastrayati, “ he clothes'); from oarman, “ armour," oarmay, “ to put on armour " (वम्मैयति carmayati); from प्रमाण, “ authority," प्रमाणय् , “ to propose as authority.' Whatever modifications adjectives may undergo before the affixes yas and ishtha (p. 47. *), the same are reguired before this nominal affix : thus, from dirgha, “ long,' drāg/ay, “ to lengthen '; from amtika, “ near,' ?meday, “ to make near," &c.
In the Mitralabha (Prof. Johnson's edition, p. 97.) there is an instance of a nominal werb formed by adding the terminations directly to the noun ; thus, चचूामि, * I peck,” from चबु, **a beak.”
Formation of the Base 0f Intramsitioe Wominals.
c. The final of the crude of the noun is rejected, as in the last case, and āy affixed. Thus, from pandita, " wise,' panditāy, “ to act the part of a wise man " (3d sing. पण्डितायते); from drama, “ a tree,' dramāy, “ to be like a tree '' ( ); from rājam, “ a king," rāpāy, “ to act the king " (ण्जायते). This nominal usually has a neuter or passive signification, and is generally restricted to the ātm. It is found, however, in an active sense, especially when derived from mouns expressive of colour ; as, from कृष्ण ,
Formatiom 0f the Base 0f Desideratioe Nominals.
d. These are formed by affixingg to the final wowel of a crude noun. The effect, however, of this affix is to change a final a or a to ं, to lengthen a final i or u, and to change चमृ ri to री. Thus from putra, “ a son,” putri), “ to desire a son" (8d Sing. पुचीयति) ; frompati,“a husband,” patāy, “ todesireahusband” (पतीयति). So also from मातृ, माचीय्; from rtijam, rāji) (r. 20. *.).
A desiderative nominal verb may also be formed by adding kāmg/ (derived from kam, “ to desire ") to the crude of nouns : thus from putra, putrakāmy, ** to desire a Son” (8d Sing. पुचकाम्यति) ; or by affixing s/ ; as from dhama, dhamasy, “ to desire wealth” (धनस्यति).
THIS is a Subject in some respects perhaps the most important that has hitherto engaged our attention. We have endeavoured in the last chapter to show, that however Complex the structure of the Sanscrit verb, and however repulsive to the Student at the Commencement of his studies, this complexity is one rather of theory than practice, and one that.hardly extends beyOnd the pages of the grammar, and is little felt, provided the attention be confined to the earlier and purer Specimens of Hindu literature. The cause of this has been shown to be, that the difficulty of the verb expends itself on tenses that are rarely if ever used by the best writers. We are now to show that the necessity for these tenses is superseded by participles, the use of which prevails to an extent wholly unparalleled in any other language, even in the Greek. These participles often discharge the functions of the verb itself, and are constantly found occupying the place of past and future tenses, and more especially those of passive verbs ; insomuch that an instance of a passive in amy other tense than the present or imperative rarely occurs. The consideration, therefore, of this portion of Our Subject bears most closely upon the idiomatic structure of the language ; and So prominent a position do these verbal derivatives hold in the construction of sentences and collocation of words, that an accurate knowledge of the mode of their formation and the nature of their duties afords the best insight into the peculiarities of Sanscrit Syntax, and elucidates many of the difficulties of idiom in the cognate dialects of India. It may be desirable to premise that the ?most importamt of these participles are not derived immediately from the verb, but from a common source with the verb, wiZ. the root. The Subject, therefore, has not been mixed up with that of verbal inflection, although in the very first instance, and in others which follow, the participle is deducible directly from a tense.
d, It has been remarked (p.62. and p.80., note f.) that the passive verb may sometimes assume a parasmaipada inflection ; and that all the neuter verbs placed under the 4th conjugation may be considered as s0 many examples of this form of the passive. This theory is corroborated by the fact of the existence of a parasmaipada present participle derivable from apassive base. Thus from दृश्य् , दृश्यत् , ** being seen” ; from चीय्, चीयत् , * being gathered.”
masc., and from the fem. Thus, Oil)/rad (from भृ , * to bear,' 3d conj.), nom. sing. du. pl. mase, Dibhrat, bibhratau, Gibhrata/ ; fem. bibhrato, bibhratyau, Dibhratyah. So also j7grat (from जागृ) and shāsat (from शाम्). They also drop the nasal in the dual neut.
d, It must also be taken as a general rule, that all other irregular primitives of the 2d, 5th, 7th, Sth, and 9th conjugations reject the nasal in the feminine, although they retain it in the masculine. Thus, adat (from ad, 2d conj.), nom. mase. adan, adantau, adantah ; fem. adati, &c. ; and randhat (from radh, 7th। conj.) nom. masc. rundhan, randhantau, &c., fem. rundhati, &e. But this rule is not universal, for Kuroat (from कृ, 8th conj) is /kadrgamta in the nom. fem.
125. This is the most useful derivative in the language, and is T।
of constant occurrence. It corresponds to the Latin participle in tus, and, like it, often supplies the place of the past tense. In neuter roots, especially those which imply motion of any kind, it is used actively, and often stands for the perfect tense active ; as, विवरं प्रविष्टः , ‘‘ he entered his hole ''; यामं गत:, “ he went to the village.' And in all cases this participle may be used to supply the place of the past tenses of the passive verb, the agent being placed in the instrumental case, and the participle agreeing with the object : as, तेन बन्धनानि छिन्नानि, “ by him the bonds were cut.”* Moreover, it may be used with the auxiliary verbs अस् and भू , “ to be,' to form a compound past or future tense, as the Latin participle is used with the auxiliary sam. Thus, प्राप्नो-स्ति, “ he has obtained '; प्राप्नो भविष्यति, “ he will have Obtained ''; गतो-स्मि, “ I am gone "; कृतमस्ति, “ it is done." Lastly, it is sometimes used in the neuter gender for a substantive ; as, दर्त्तं, “ a gift '; खार्त , “ an excavation."f
This participle may be regarded as falling under four heads : lst, as derived from roots ; 2dly, as derived from causal bases ; 3dly, as derived from desiderative bases; 4thly, as derived from nominal bases.
* This kind of construction is exceedingly common in Sanscrit, and has been transferred from it to Hinduistani. The particle me in this latter language correSponds most clearly to the Sanscrit ma, which is the usual Sign of the instrumental case, and can newer occasion any difficulty ifit be regarded in this light.
f In a few instances this participle has a present Signification ; as, भीत, “ fearing"
८८ ____** स्यित, “ standing.