Imatges de pÓgina
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अदर्शयं adarshayam,
wcsra: adarshayah,
अदर्शयत् adarshayat,

दर्शयेयं darshayegam,
citt: darshayeh,
दर्शयेत् darshayet,

प्रदर्शयाव adarshayāva, , अदर्शयाम adarshayāma. .
अदर्शयतं adarshayatam, अदर्शयत adarshayata.

अदर्शयतां adarshayatām, अदर्शयन् adarshayan.
Potential. -“ I may cause to see.”

दर्शयेव darshayeva, दर्शयेम darshayema.
दर्शयेतं darshayetam, paian darshayeta.

giriai darshayetām, cirug: darshayeyuh.
Imperative.—“Let me cause to see.”

gaiara darshayāva, दर्शयाम darshayāma.
दर्शयतं darshayatam, csirun darshayata.
दर्शयतां darshayatām, cstran darshayantu.

gsrufa darshayāni,
दर्शय darshaya,
afruz darshayatu,

Second Preterite.-“ I caused to see."

दर्शयामास darshayāmāsa, दर्शयामासिव darshayāmāsiva, दर्शयामासिम darshayāmāsima. दर्शयामासिथ darshayāmāsitha, दर्शयामासयु: darshayāmāsathuh, दर्शयामास darshayāmāsa. दर्शयामास darshayāmāsa, दर्शयामासतुः darshayāmāsatuh, दर्शयामासुः darshayāmāsuh.

First Future.—“ I will cause to see." Astfuntfen darshayitāsmi, citfente: darshayitāswah, दर्शयितास्म: darshajitāsmah. दर्शयितासि darshajitāsi, दर्शयितास्थ: darshajitāsthah, दर्शयितास्थ darshajitāstha. citfun darshayitā, दर्शयितारी darshajitārau, sifat darshayitārah.

Second Future. _“I will cause to see.”

दर्शयिष्यामि darshajishyāmi, दर्शयिष्याव: darshajishyāvah, दर्शयिष्यामः darshagishyamah. दर्शयिष्यसि darshajishyasi, estraura darshayishyathah, sifare darshayishyatha. cftfyufa darshayişhyati, sfyon: darshayishyatah, getfueron darshayishyanti.

3d pret. अदीदृशं or अददर्श; bened. दासं ; cond. अदर्शयिष्यं; Atm. pres. दर्शये, दर्शयसे, दर्शयते, &c.; 1st pret. अदर्शये; pot. दर्शयेय; imp. दर्शयै, दर्शयख, &c. ; 2d pret. दर्शयाञ्चक्रे; lst fut. दर्शयिताहे; 2d fut. दर्शयिष्ये; 3d pret. अदीदृशे, अदीदृशया:, &c. ; bened. दर्शयिषीय ; cond. अदर्शयिष्ये; p. part. दर्शित. a) or gri darshayānchakāra, p. 87. r. 108. 6) r. 109. “) r. 110. 4) r. 125. r. After this model may be conjugated all causal verbs.

Root दा.

128. EXAMPLES OF PASSIVE VERBS. (p. 89. r. 111.).

Infin. Eta, “to be given.” (p. 90. r. 112.).

Present.—“ I am given.” दीये diye,

दीयावहे diyāvahe, दीयामहे diyāmahe. दीयसे diyase, दीयेथे diyethe,

दीयध्वे diyadhwe. दीयते diyate, दीयेते diyete,

दीयन्ते diyante, First Preterite.—“I was given.” अदीये adiye,

अदीयावहि adiyavahi, अदीयामहि adiyamahi. weluar: adīyathāh, अदीयेयां udiyethām, अदीयध्वं adiyadhwam. अदीयत adiyata,

अदीयेतां adiyetām, , अदीयन्त adiyanta.

Potential. "I may be given.” दोयेय diyeya,

दीयेवहि diyevahi, दीयेमहि diyemahi. cider: dīyethāh, दीयेयायां diyeyāthām, दीयध्वं diyedhavam. . दीयेत diyeta,

दीयेयातां diyeyatām, दोयेरन् diyeran.

Imperative." Let me be given.” दीयै diyai, ,

दीयावहै diyavahai, , दीयामहै diyāmahai. दीयख diyaswa,

दीयेयां diyethām, , दीयध्वं diyadhavam. दीयतां diyatām, दीयेतां diyetam,

alumni dīyantām. Second Preterite.-—“I have been given.” Ge dade,

ददिवहे dadivahe, , ददिमहे dadimahe. ददिषे dadishe,

ददाथे dadathe, ददिने dadidhuve (or दे). ददे dade, ददाते dadāte,

ददिरे dadire. First Future.—“I shall be given.” STATE dātāhe, or STATE dātāswahe, STATA dātāsmahe, 8c. दायिताहे dayitahe, दायिताखहे dājitāswahe, çifuattrę dāyitāsmahe,&c.

Second Future.—“I shall be given.” SGTR dāsye, or दास्यावहे dāsyāvahe, GTRIIHÈ dāsyāmahe, &c. çifua dāyishye, दायिष्यावहे dāyishyavahe, दायिष्यामहे dayishyāmahe,se.

Third Preterite.—“I was given.” wfçfa adishi, or yfesafe adişhwahi, अदिप्महि adishmahi. lançifuta adāyishi, wife adāyishwahi, weifaris adāyishmahi. fufçur: adithāh, or अदिषायां adishāthām, wfcg adidhwam. wiftfugt. adāyishthāh, wife rei adāyishāthām, wçifusa adāyidhwam.

ufcutai adishātām, we adishata. wifaadāyi, it was given,”

अदायिषातां adāyishatām, अदायिषत adāyishata.


Bened. दासीय or दायिपीय, &c.; cond. अदास्ये or अदायिष्ये.

Root कृ. .

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Inf. कर्नु , “ to be made or “ done " (p. 90. 6.). Present.—“I am made." First Preterite.—“I was made." क्रिये क्रियावहे क्रियामहे


अक्रियावहि प्रक्रियामहि क्रियसे क्रियेथे क्रियध्वे अक्रियथाः अक्रियेयां अक्रियध्वं क्रियते क्रियेते क्रियन्ते

प्रक्रियत अक्रियतां अक्रियन्त

Potential.-" I may be made." क्रियेय क्रियेवहि क्रियेमहि क्रियेथाः क्रियेयाथां क्रियेध्वं क्रियेत

क्रियेयातां क्रियेरन्

Imperative.—“Let me be made."
क्रियै क्रियावहै क्रियामहै
क्रियख क्रियेयां क्रियध्वं
क्रियतां क्रियेत क्रियन्तां

Second Preterite. चक्रे चकृवहे चकृमहे चकृषे चक्राथे चकृढ़े चक्रे चक्राते चक्रिरे

First Future. किताहे कतीखहे कास्महे, &c. lor कारिताहे कारिताखहे कारितास्महे,&c. Second fut. करिष्ये or कारिप्ये, &e.

Third Preterite.




अकृषि or अकारिषि

अकृष्वहि or अकारिष्वहि । अकृष्महि or अकारिमहि अकृथाः or अकारिठाः अकृषायां or अकारिपायां | अकृढ़ or अकारिध्वं अकारि, “it was done," अकृषातां or अकारिषातां

अकृषत or अकारिषत Bened. कृषीय or कारिषीय ; cond. अकरिष्ये or अकारिष्ये.

The following is an example of a passive verb from a root ending in a consonant.

Root युज.

. Infin. योक्तुं, “ to be fitting." Pres. युज्ये, “I am fitting," युज्यसे, युज्यते, &c.; 1st pret. अयुज्ये, अयुज्यथाः, अयुज्यत, &c.; pot. युज्येय, &c.; imp. युज्यै, युज्यख, युज्यतां, &c.; 2d pret. युयुजे, युयुजिषे, युयुजे, &c; 1st fut. योक्ताहे, योक्तासे, योक्ता, &c. ; 2d fut. योध्ये, योक्ष्यसे, योक्ष्यते, &c.; 3d pret. अयुक्षि, अयुक्याः, अयोजि, अयुवहि, अयुक्षायां, &c.; bened. युक्षीय, &c. ; cond. अयोध्ये, &c.

DESIDERATIVE VERBS. 119. Although this form of the root rarely appears in its character of a verb, yet nouns and participles derived from the desiderative base are not uncommon (see p. 23. xiii. r. 40., and

p. 141. s.). Some explanation, therefore, of its structure is indispensable. Moreover, there are certain roots which take a desiderative form, without exactly yielding a volitive signification; and these, as being equivalent to primitive verbs (amongst which they are sometimes classed), may occur in the best writers.

For example, jugups, to blame,” from the root gup; chikits, to cure,” from kit; titiksh, “to bear,” from tij; māmāns, “ to reason," from man ; bībhats, “to abhor," from badh.

The Terminations. a. Desideratives take the terminations of the regular scheme at p. 63., and their inflection either in the par. or ātm. is determined by the practice of the primitive verb. Thus, the root budh, taking both inflections in the primitive, may take both in the desiderative (bubodhishāmi, &c., or bubodhishe, &c.); and labh, taking only the ātm. in the primitives, may take only the ātm. in the desiderative (lipse, &c.).


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Conjugational Tenses. 6. The initial consonant and vowel of the root are reduplicated, and if the root inserts i in the primitive (see p. 79.), then ish is affixed : if the root rejects i, then simply s, changeable to q şh, is affixed. Thus, from kship, "to throw," the base chikships (fafafa chikshipsāmi, &c.); but from vid, “to know," taking inserted i in the primitive, vividish (fafarçarfa vividişhāmi, &c.). The reduplication of the consonant is strictly in conformity with the rules laid down at p. 75., and that of the vowel of the initial consonant follows the analogy of causal third preterites (p. 88.); that is, the vowel i (generally, however, short) is reduplicated for a, ā, i, 7, ri, , e, or ai; but the vowel u for u, ū, and o. Thus,


* And if the root begin with a vowel the reduplication still follows the analogy of the same tense ; thus, from ash, ashish, and with işh added, ashishish. See p. 89.


from pach, pipaksh; from yūch, yiyāchish; from jīv, jijāvish; from drish, diilriksh; from sev, sisevişh ; from gai, jigūs ; but from yuj, yuyuksh; from , pupūsh.

c. It has been said that the annexation of ish or s to the reduplicated root is generally determined by the assumption or rejection of inserted i in the primitive. When ish is affixed, the radical vowel may in general be optionally changed to Guna. Thus, from mud, either mumodish or mumudish.

d. When s is affixed to roots ending in vowels it has the effect of lengthening a final į or u, and changing ri or to ir ; thus, from chi, chichish; from shru, shushrūşh; from kri, chikīrsh; from trī, titārşh.* When to roots ending in consonants, the radical vowel remains unchanged, but the final consonant combines with the initial sibilant, in accordance with the rules laid down in pp. 67. 68. ; as, from yudh, yuyuts (p. 68. 6.); from dah, didhaksh (p. 69. i.).

e. The following roots form their desiderative bases anomalously. From , “to give," dits (ditsūmi, “I wish to give "); from āp, “to obtain," īps; from dhā, dhits ; from ji,“ to conquer," jigīsh; from chi, chikīsh, as well as chichīşh; from han, “ to kill," jighāns ; from यह, जिघृक्ष ; from प्रच्छ , पिपृच्छिष् ; from स्वप् , सुषुप्म् ;

“to be able,” fu; from JH, “to obtain," fore; from स, रिम् ; पत् , पिस्.

Non Conjugational Tenses. The second preterite is formed by affixing ām to the desiderative base, as already formed, and adding the second preterite of either one of the auxiliaries kri or bhū (see p. 77.g.). Thus from pach, the 2d pret. pipakshānchakāra, “ I wished to cook.” In all the remaining tenscs it is an universal rule that inserted i be assumed after the desiderative base, whether formed by s or ish, except in the bened. par. Thus, 1st fut. of pipaksh, 1st pers. sing. pipakshitāsmi, &c.; 2d fut. pipakshishyāmi, fc.; 3d pret. apipakshisham, &c. (form 1. p. 81.); bened. par. pipakshyāsam, &c.; ātm. pipakshishīya, &c.; condit. apipakshishyam, &c. So, also, taking vividish (formed with ish from vid), the 1st fut. is vividishitāsmi ; 2d fut. vividishishyāmi; 3d pret. avividişhisham, &c.

from शक,

* But the root पृ may make पुपूर्ष ; भृ, बुभूप ; and वृ, वुवूर्ष .

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