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tad karoti becomes tat karoti; vāg patih, vāk patih ; kshudh pipāsā, kshut pipāsā. But as very few words in Sanscrit end in any other consonants than t and d, the nasals, Visargah, the dental sibilant 8, and r, it will be sufficient for all practical purposes that the attention be confined to the changes of these consonants. To begin, therefore, with t and d.

CHANGES OF FINAL É AND d.

General rule.

14. T becomes d before g, gh, d, dh, b, bh, h, y, r, v, and all vowels. *

See example, rule 12. D becomes t before k, kh, t, th, p, ph, 8. See example, rule 13.

Before the nasals, palatals, and the letter I, final t and d undergo a change in form as well as quality, as in the following special rules.

Change of t or d to n, before n or m. 15. If t or d end a word when the next begins with a nasal, the t or d is usually changed to its own nasal. Thus, tasmāt na becomes tasmān na; tasmāt mūrkha, tasmān mūrkha.

† A final k is subject to a similar rnle. Thus, vāk mama (974 75) would become vān mama (वाङ्मम).

Assimilation of t or d with ch, j, l. 16. If t or d end a word when the next begins with ch, j, or i, the t or d assimilates with these letters. Thus, bhayāt lobhāt cha becomes bhayāl lobhāch cha; tad jīvanam, taj jīvanam.

Combination of t or d with sh. 17. If t or d end a word when the next begins with 7 8h, then

* Before the vowels of terminations t remains unchanged; thus, the accusative case of Harit is Haritam, not Haridam ; and the third person singular of the verb yat is yatute, not yadate.

t or d are changed to ch, and the initial 7 sh to a chh. Thus, tat shrutvā (aq mi) becomes tach chhrulvā (nepat).

Combination of t or d with h. 18. If a word end in t or d when the next begins with h, the final t is changed to d (by rule 12), and the initial to y dh. Thus, tad harati (Trç Era) is written tad dharati (nan).

* By a similar rule, and on the same principle, are written words ending in k followed by initial Ę; as vāk harati (aren Erfa), võg gharati (apefa).

CHANGES OF THE NASALS.

Changes of final a n before vowels and before t, ch, sh, l. 19. If the letter an, preceded by a short vowel, end a word when the next begins with any vowel, the n is doubled. Thus, ūsan atra becomes ūsann atra; tasmin eva, tasminn eva.

20. If n end a word when the next begins with t, ch, or their aspirates, a sibilant is inserted between the two words, according to the class of these last initial letters; and the 7. n is then expressed by Anuswāra, according to rule (p. 5, $). Thus, asmin tu becomes asminstu (uffie); kasmin chit becomes kasminshchit (कस्मिंश्चित).

+ If 7 n end a word when the next begins with yg sh, they may either remain unchanged, or they may be combined in either one of the two following ways. 1st, the final 7 may be changed to qn; as, wala at is written 1915. 2dly, the y may also be changed to ; as, 191537:

If q end a word when the next begins with 1, the n assimilates with the l, and the mark is placed over the preceding vowel. As, pakshān lunāti is written पक्षानुनाति.

If the crude form of a word end in n, this n is rejected in forming a compound word, or before any affix. Thus, rājan purusha is compounded into rājapurusha ; and Erfha into EIRO; and dhanin, with the affix twa, becomes dhanitwa.

Change of a n, not final, to u n, after ri, r, şh, preceding in the same

word. 21. The letters [ r, 7 sh, are cerebrals, and the vowel ri is allied to the cerebral r. Hence, if the letter n (not final) should follow

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ri, r, or șh, in the same word, the nasal must be written in the cerebral form I n, even though k, g, p, 6 (or their aspirates), h, y, v, or m, should intervene. Thus, the English word carbonic would be written in the Sanscrit character thus, atafura; and the accusative case of ब्रह्महन् is ब्रह्महणं ; and the nominative plural of वर्मन् is gaTfu; and the imperative mood of faq, fayfu. But the intervention of a dental, palatal, or cerebral, or of any letter whatever, if compounded with the nasal, prevents the operation of this rule, and requires the dental n to follow. Thus, the instrumental case of शृगाल is शृगालेन; the nominative plural of वर्मन् , affa; and in further illustration of the same law, may be taken the words सर्जनं, क्रीडनं, प्राप्नोति, राज्ञा.

Changes of final m. 22. If the letter 4 m end a word when the next begins with any consonant, it may be represented by Anuswāra (*); or it may, optionally, before those consonants which have a corresponding nasal, be changed to this corresponding nasal.

Thus, griham gachchhati is written either गृहं गच्छति or गृहङ्गच्छति. 23. When the next word begins with a vowel, the letter म्

is always written.

Thus, griham āpnoti, TEHTHT.

CHANGES OF VISARGAH OR FINAL h.

Almost every nominative case, and nearly half the remaining cases of nouns in Sanscrit, besides many persons of the verb, end in Visargah (:), or the symbol used to denote the aspirate when final. And this final h is liable to remain unchanged, to be changed to s, to sh, to o, to r, or to be dropped altogether, according to the nature of the initial letter following. At every step, therefore, these changes will meet the student's eye. Therefore let him master the following five rules before he attempts to read a single sentence of Sanscrit, or he can never hope to make any real progress in the acquirement of this language.

* The letter is, properly, a compound of a k and q sh; although, in this Grammar, it is considered as a simple letter, and represented by ksh.

RULE A.- WHEN IS VISARGAH OR FINAL h UNCHANGED? 24. a. Before k, p (and their aspirates), and before the sibilants

8, y sh. b. Before a pause, i.e. at the end of a sentence, or when a

word stands by itself.

RULE B.- WHEN IS VISARGAH CHANGED TO # S AND A sh? 25. a. Before + (and its aspirate) it is changed to the dental sibi

lant 8; before ch (and its aspirate), to the palatal sibi

श् 6. Also in some books, before the sibilants 7, , Visargah

is allowed to assimilate with these letters.

*

lant u sh.

RULE C.-WHEN IS VISARGAH CHANGED TO o? 26. a. Final ah is changed to o before all sonant consonants.

b. Also before short a (this a being then cut off).

27. a.

RULE D.—WHEN IS VISARGAH CHANGED TO r?
Ih, ih, uh, ūh, eh, aih, oh, auh, before any sonant (consonant

or vowel), change the final h to r; 6. Unless r itself be the sonant following, in which case, to

avoid the coalition of two r's, final h is dropped, and the vowel preceding it (if short) is lengthened.

28. a.

RULE E.-WHEN IS VISARGAH DROPPED ALTOGETHER ?
Final ah, before any other vowel except short a, drops the

Visargah, and leaves the remaining a opening on the

initial vowel of the next word without coalition. b. Final āh, before any sonant (consonant or vowel), drops

the Visargah ; and, if the initial letter of the next word be a vowel, the remaining ā is allowed to open upon it without coalition.

* So, also, before 7, 7, Visargah is changed to the cerebral sibilant q; as, रविष् टीकते.

† By a special rule #:, “he," and pu:, “this,” the nominative cases of the pronouns तद्

and ene, drop their Visargah before uny consonant.

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In the following Table the nominative cases Narah, “a man,” Narāh, men," and Harih, “Vishņu," joined with verbs, illustrate these rules at one view.

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CHANGES OF FINAL स् 8. 29. The rules for the changes of Visargah apply equally to final sibilants. Thus, manas hara becomes manohara (as in c. a.); and chakshus vishaya, chakshur vishaya (as in D. a.);* and chetas, standing alone, is written chetah (A. b.)

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* In a few compound words a final sibilant takes the cerebral form before k, as prādus krita become prādushkrita. Similarly, a final r before k or p: as, nir with krānta, ni hleranta ; with putra, nishputra. See also r. 42, 43, and 131. 1.

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