Imatges de pÓgina
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दर्शयन्तु darshayantu.

Second Preterite.-"I caused to see."

दर्शयामासिथ darshayāmāsitha, दर्शयामास darshayāmāsa,

दर्शयितास्मि darshayitāsmi, दर्शयितासि darshanyitāsi, दर्शयिता darshayitā,

दर्शयामासिव darshayāmāsiva, दर्शयामासिम darshayāmāsima. दर्शयामासथु: darshayāmāsathuh, दर्शयामास darshayāmāsa. दर्शयामासतुः darshayāmāsatuh, दर्शयामासुः darshayāmāsuh.

First Future." I will cause to see."

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दर्शयिष्यामि darshayishyāmi,

दर्शयिष्याव: darshayishyāvah,

दर्शयितार : darshayitārah.

दर्शयिष्याम: darshajishyāmah.

दर्शयिष्यसि darshayishyasi,

दर्शयिष्यथः darshayishyathah, दर्शयिष्यथ darshayishyatha.

दर्शयिष्यति darshayishyati,

दर्शयिष्यत: darshajishyatah,

दर्शयिष्यन्ति darshayishyanti.

3d pret. अदीदृशं' or अददशैं; bened. दश्यासं; cond. अदर्शयिष्यं; Atm.

pres. दर्शये, दर्शयसे, दर्शयते, &c. ; 1st pret. अदर्शये
दर्शयै, दर्शयख, &c. ; 2d pret. दर्शयाञ्चक्रे ; 1st fut.

;

pot. दर्शयेय ; imp. दर्शयिताहे ; 2d fut. दर्शयिष्ये; 3d pret. अदीदृशे, अदीदृशयाः, &c. ; bened दर्शयिषीय ; cond. अदर्शयिष्ये; p. part. दर्शित '.

*) or

darshayānchakāra, p. 87. r. 108. b) r. 109. c) r. 110. d) r. 125. r.

After this model may be conjugated all causal verbs.

128. EXAMPLES OF PASSIVE VERBS. (p. 89. r. 111.).

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अदिषि adishi, or .अदायिषि adāyishi,

f: adithah, or

First Future." I shall be given."

दाताखहे dātāswahe,

दायितास्खहे dāyitāswahe,

दातास्महे dātāsmahe, &c.

Second Future.-"I shall be given."

दास्यावहे dāsyāvahe,

दायिष्पावहे dāyishyāvahe,

दास्यामहे dāsyāmahe, &c.

दायिष्यामहे dāyishyāmahe,Sc.

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अदायिष्वहि adāyishwahi,

अदायिष्महि adāyishmahi.

दायितास्महे dāyitāsmahe, &c.

अदिषायां adishāthām, अदिदूं adidhwam.

.अदायिष्ठाः adāyishthah, अदायिषायां adāyishāthām, अदायिध्वं adayidhwam.

अदायि adāyi, “it was given,” { अदिमातां adishātām,

अदिषत adishata.

अदायि adāyi, “ it was given," अदायिषातां adāyishātām, अदायिषत adāyishata.

Bened. दासीय or दायिषीय, &c.; cond अदास्ये or अदायिष्ये.

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Inf. कर्त्तुं, “ to be made or "done" (p. 90. b.).

Root कृ.

Present .

-“ I am made. "

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First Preterite.
- "I was made."
अक्रिये अक्रियावहि सक्रियामहि

अक्रियथाः अक्रियेथां सक्रियध्वं
अक्रियत अक्रियेतां अक्रियन्त

Imperative.—“Let me be made."
क्रियै क्रियावहै क्रियामहै
क्रियख क्रियेथां क्रियध्वं

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Bened. कृषीय or कारिषीय; cond. अकरिष्ये or अकारिप्पे .

The following is an example of a passive verb from a root ending in a consonant.

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Pres. युज्ये, “I am fitting, " युज्यसे, युज्यते, &c. ; 1st pret अयुज्ये, अयुज्यथा:, अयुज्यत, &c. ; pot. युज्येय, &c. ; imp. युज्यै, युज्यख, युज्यतां, &c. ; 2d pret. युयुजे, युयुजिपे, युयुजे &e; 1st fut. योक्ताहे, योक्तासे, योक्ता, &c. ; 2d fut. योक्ष्य, योक्ष्यसे, योक्ष्यते, &c. ; 3d pret. अयुक्षि, अयुक्या:, अयोजि, अवहि, अयुक्षायां, &c. ; bened. युक्षीय, &c.; cond. अयोक्ष्ये, &c.

DESIDERATIVE VERBS.

119. Although this form of the root rarely appears in its character of a verb, yet nouns and participles derived from the desiderative base are not uncommon (see p. 23. xiii. r. 40., and p. 141. s.). Some explanation, therefore, of its structure is indispensable. Moreover, there are certain roots which take a desiderative form, without exactly yielding a volitive signification; and these, as being equivalent to primitive verbs (amongst which they are sometimes classed), may occur in the best writers. For example, jugups, "to blame," from the root gup; chikits, "to cure," from kit; titiksh, to bear," from tij; mīmāns, “to reason," from man; bibhats, "to abhor," from bādh.

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The Terminations.

a. Desideratives take the terminations of the regular scheme at p. 63., and their inflection either in the par. or ātm. is determined by the practice of the primitive verb. Thus, the root budh, taking both inflections in the primitive, may take both in the desiderative (bubodhishāmi, &c., or bubodhishe, &c.); and labh, taking only the atm. in the primitives, may take only the atm. in the desiderative (lipse, &c.).

FORMATION OF THE BASE.

Conjugational Tenses.

b. The initial consonant and vowel of the root are reduplicated, and if the root inserts i in the primitive (see p. 79.), then ish is affixed if the root rejects i, then simply s, changeable to ash, is affixed. Thus, from kship, "to throw," the base chikships (fafafa chikshipsāmi, &c.); but from vid, "to know," taking inserted in the primitive, vividiṣh (fafafçuıfa vividiṣhāmi, &c.). The reduplication of the consonant is strictly in conformity with the rules laid down at p. 75., and that of the vowel of the initial consonant follows the analogy of causal third preterites (p. 88.); that is, the vowel i (generally, however, short) is reduplicated for a, ā, i, ī, ri, rī, e, or ai; but the vowel u for u, u, and o. Thus,

*

* And if the root begin with a vowel the reduplication still follows the analogy of the same tense; thus, from ash, ashish, and with iṣh added, ashishish. See p. 89.

S

from pach, pipaksh; from yūch, yiyūchish; from jiv, jijīvish; from drish, didriksh; from sev, sisevish; from gai, jigūs; but from yuj, yuyuksh; from pū, pupūsh.

c. It has been said that the annexation of ish or s to the reduplicated root is generally determined by the assumption or rejection of inserted in the primitive. When ish is affixed, the radical vowel may in general be optionally changed to Guna. Thus, from mud, either mumodish or mumudish.

*

d. When 8 is affixed to roots ending in vowels it has the effect of lengthening a final i or u, and changing ri or rī to ir; thus, from chi, chichish; from shru, shushrush; from kri, chikīrsh; from tri, titirsh. When to roots ending in consonants, the radical vowel remains unchanged, but the final consonant combines with the initial sibilant, in accordance with the rules laid down in pp. 67.68.; as, from yudh, yuyuts (p. 68. b.); from dah, didhaksh (p. 69. i.).

e. The following roots form their desiderative bases anomalously. From da, "to give," dits (ditsāmi, "I wish to give"); from up, "to obtain," ips; from dhā, dhits; from ji, "to conquer, jigish; from chi, chikish, as well as chichish; from han, "to kill," jghāūns; from मह, जिघृक्ष ; from प्रच्छ, पिपृच्छिष्; from स्वप्, सुषुप्स् ; from श, to be able," f; from, “to obtain," f; from रभ, रिप्म्; पत्, पित्स्.

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Non Conjugational Tenses.

The second preterite is formed by affixing am to the desiderative base, as already formed, and adding the second preterite of either one of the auxiliaries kri or bhū (see p. 77.g.). Thus from pach, the 2d pret. pipakshāṁchakāra, "I wished to cook." In all the remaining tenses it is an universal rule that inserted i be assumed after the desiderative base, whether formed by s or ish, except in the bened. par. Thus, 1st fut. of pipaksh, 1st pers. sing. pipakshitāsmi, &c.; 2d fut. pipakshishyāmi, &c. ; 3d pret. apipakshisham, &c. (form 1. p. 81.); bened. par. pipakshyāsam, &c.; atm. pipakshishiya, &c.; condit. apipakshishyam, &c. So, also, taking vividish (formed with ish from vid), the 1st fut. is vividiṣhitāsmi; 2d fut. vividiṣhiṣhyāmi ; 3d pret. avividishisham, &c.

* But the root पॄ may make पुपूर्व् ; भृ, बुभूर्ष् ; and वृ, वुवूे .

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