Imatges de pàgina

Imperfect. “I was causing to see.”

अदर्शयं adarshayam,
Wesra: adarshayah,
अदर्शयत् adarshayat,

प्रदर्शयाव adarshayāva, प्रदर्शयाम adarshayāma.
wyggiuni adarshayatam, अदर्शयत adarshayata.

अदर्शयतां adarshayatām, प्रदर्शयन् adarshayam.
Potential.-—“ I may cause to see.”

दर्शयेव darshayeva, दर्शयेम darshayema.
estur darshayetam, faran darshayeta.
दर्शयेतां darshayetām, strug: darshayeyuh.

दर्शयेयं darshayeyam,

: darshayeh, दर्शयेत् darshayet,

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दर्शयामास darshayāmāsa, दर्शयामासिव darshayāmāsiva, दर्शयामासिम darshayāmāsima. दर्शयामासिथ darshayāmāsitha, दर्शयामासथु: darshayāmāsathuh, दर्शयामास darshayāmāsa. दर्शयामास darshayāmāsa, C14Hrag: darshayāmāsatuh, chir4rarg: darshayāmāsuh.

First Future.--" I will cause to see."

दर्शयितास्मि darshajitāsmi, estfunifh darshayitāsi, strun darshayitā,

cifrare: darshayitāswah,
दर्शयितास्थ: darshajitāsthah,
Estrunid darshayitārau,

दर्शयितास्म: darshajitāsmah. दर्शयितास्थ darshajitāstha. दर्शयिताe darshajitārah.

Second Future. _“I will cause to see.”

दर्शयिष्यामि darshayishyāmi, दर्शयिष्याव: darshayishyāvah, दर्शयिष्याम: darshayishyāmah. दर्शयिष्यसि darshayishyasi, citfupr. darshayishyathah, fitfuery darshayishyatha. दर्शयिष्यति darshajishyati, दर्शयिष्यत: darshayishyatah, दर्शयिष्यन्ति darshajishyanti.

3d pret. अदीदृशं or अददशैं; bened. दयासं'; cond. अदर्शयिष्यं; Atm.
pres. दर्शये, दर्शयसे, दर्शयते, &c.; Ist pret. अदर्शये; pot. दर्शयेय; imp.
दर्शयै, दर्शयख, &c.; 2d pret. दर्शयाचक्रे; lst fut. दर्शयिताहे; 2d fut.
दर्शयिष्ये; 3d pret. अदीडशे, अदीदृशयाः, &c. ; bened. दर्शयिषीय ; cond.
अदर्शयिष्ये; p. part. दर्शित.
a) or rang darshayānchakāra, p. 87. r. 108. 6) r. 109. C) r. 110. 4) r. 125. r.
After this model may be conjugated all causal verbs.

Root दा.

128. EXAMPLES OF PASSIVE VERBS. (p. 89. r. 111.).

Infin. cred,“ to be given.” (p. 90. r. 112.).

Present.—“I am given.” दीये diye,

दीयावहे diyāvahe, दीयामहे diyāmahe. दीयसे diyase, दीयेथे diyethe, ,

दीयध्वे diyadhwe. दीयते diyate, , दीयेते diyete,

दीयन्ते diyante, First Preterite.—“I was given.” अदीये adiye,

wcierafɛ adīyāvahi, अदीयामहि adiyamahi. अदीयथाः adiyathāh, अदीयेयां adiyethām, अदीयध्वं adiyadhwam. अदीयत adiyata, अदीयेतां adiyetām, wc14n adīyanta.

Potential.—“I may be given.” दोयेय diyeya,

दीयेवहि diyevahi, दीयेमहि diyemahi. tut: diyethāh, दीयेयायां diyeyāthām, दीयेध्वं diyedhram. . दीयेत diyeta, ,

दीयेयातां diyeyatām, दोयेरन् diyeran.

Imperative.—“Let me be given.” दीयै diyas,

दीयावहै diyavthai, दीयामहै diyāmahai. दीयख diyaswa, दीयेयां diyethām, , atasa diyadhwam. दीयतां diyatām, दीयेतां diyetām,

qiyoti dīyantām. Second Preterite.—“I have been given.” ददे dade, ददिवहे dadivahe,

ददिमहे dadimahe. ददिषे dadishe,

ददाथे dadathe, çiçsa dadidhwe (or a). ददे dade, ददाते dadate, ,

ददिरे dadire. First Future.—“I shall be given.” Scrare dātāhe, or çares dātāswahe, GTATAE dātāsmahe, &c. çifuate dāyitāhe, çifuateş dāyitāswahe, ctfuatedāyitāsmahe,&c.

Second Future.—“I shall be given.” दास्ये dāsye, or दास्यावहे dāsyāvahe, GIRTHE dāsyāmahe, 8c. दायिष्ये dāyishye, दायिष्यावहे dāyishyavahe, दायिष्यामहे dayishyāmahe,se.

Third Preterite.—“I was given.” wffa adishi, or wfesafe adişhwahi, yfçufę adişhmahi. wifufa adāyishi, wçifubaft adāyishwahi, ugify fe adāyishmahi. I wfcer: adithāh, or अदिषायां adishāthām, więg adidhwam. अदायिष्ठाः adājishthah, अदायिषायां adāyishāthām, अदायिध्वं adāyidhwam.

sufçatai adishātām, अदिषत adishata. . wifu adāyi, "it was given,"

प्रदायिषातां adayishātām, अदायिषत adāyishata.


Bened. दासीय or दायिषीय, &c.; cond. अदास्ये or अदायिष्ये.

Root कृ.

Inf. कर्नु, “ to be made " or " done " (p. 90. 6.). Present.—“I am made." First Preterite.—“I was made." क्रिये क्रियावहे क्रियामहे अक्रिये प्रक्रियावहि अक्रियामहि क्रियसे क्रियेथे क्रियध्वे अक्रियथाः अक्रियेयां अक्रियध्वं क्रियते क्रियेते क्रियन्ते अक्रियत अक्रियता प्रक्रियन्त

Potential.—“I may be made." क्रियेय क्रियेवहि क्रियेमहि क्रियेथाः क्रियेयायां क्रियेवं क्रियेत क्रियेयातां क्रियेरन्


.-"Let me be made." क्रियै क्रियावहै क्रियामहै क्रियख क्रियेयां क्रियध्वं क्रियता क्रियेत क्रियन्तां

Second Preterite. चक्रे चकृवहे चकृमहे चकृषे चक्राये चकृढ़े चक्रे चक्राते चक्रिरे

First Future. किताहे कतीखहे कास्महे, &c. tor कारिताहे कारिताखहे कारितास्महे,&c. Second fut. करिष्ये or कारिप्ये,&e.

Third Preterite.




अकृषि or अकारिषि
अकृष्वहि or अकारिष्वहि । अकृमहि

or अकारिमहि अकृथाः or अकारिठाः अकृपायां or अकारिपायां अकृढ़ or अकारिध्वं अकारि, “ it was done," अकृपातां or अकारिपातां

अकृषत or अकारिषत Bened. कृषीय or कारिषीय ; cond. अकरिष्ये or अकारिप्पे.

The following is an example of a passive verb from a root ending in a consonant.

Root युज.

Infin. योक्तुं, “ to be fitting: Pres. युज्ये, “I am fitting," युज्यसे, युज्यते, &c.; 1st pret. अयुज्ये, अयुज्ययाः, अयुज्यत, &c.; pot. युज्येय, &c.; imp. युज्यै, युज्यख, युज्यतां, &c.; 2d pret. युयुजे, युयुजिषे, युयुजे, &c; 1st fut. योक्ताहे, योक्तासे, योक्ता, &c. ; 2d fut. योक्ष्ये, योक्ष्यसे, योक्ष्यते, &c.; 3d pret. अयुक्षि, अयुक्याः, अयोनि, अयुवहि, अयुक्षायां, &c.; bened. युक्षीय, &c.; cond. अयोध्ये, &c.

DESIDERATIVE VERBS. 119. Although this form of the root rarely appears in its character of a verb, yet nouns and participles derived from the desiderative base are not uncommon (see p. 23. xiii. r. 40., and p. 141. s.). Some explanation, therefore, of its structure is indispensable. Moreover, there are certain roots which take a desiderative form, without exactly yielding a volitive signification; and these, as being equivalent to primitive verbs (amongst which they are sometimes classed), may occur in the best writers. For example, jugups, “to blame," from the root gup; chikits, “to cure," from kit; titiksh,“ to bear," from tij; mīmāns, “to reason,” from man ; bībhats, to abhor," from bādh.

The Terminations. a. Desideratives take the terminations of the regular scheme at p. 63., and their inflection either in the par. or ātm. is determined by the practice of the primitive verb. Thus, the root budh, taking both inflections in the primitive, may take both in the desiderative (bubodhishāmi, &c., or bubodhishe, &c.); and labh, taking only the ātm. in the primitives, may take only the ātm. in the desiderative (lipse, &c.).



Conjugational Tenses. b. The initial consonant and vowel of the root are reduplicated, and if the root inserts i in the primitive (see p. 79.), then ish is affixed : if the root rejects i, then simply s, changeable to a sh, is affixed. Thus, from kship, “to throw," the base chikships (fafaufa chikshipsāmi, &c.); but from vid, “to know,” taking inserted i in the primitive, vividişh (fafargarf vividishāmi, &c.). The reduplication of the consonant is strictly in conformity with the rules laid down at p. 75., and that of the vowel of the initial consonant follows the analogy of causal third preterites (p. 88.); that is, the vowel i (generally, however, short) is reduplicated for a, ā, i, ī, ri, , e, or ai ; but the vowel u for u, ū, and o. Thus,


* And if the root begin with a vowel the reduplication still follows the analogy of the same tense ; thus, from ash, ashish, and with işh added, ashishish. See p. 89.

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from pach, pipaksh; from yāch, yiyūchish; from jīv, jijīvish; from drish, didriksh ; from sev, sisevişh ; from gai, jigās; but from yuj, yuyuksh; from , pupāşh.

C. It has been said that the annexation of ish or s to the reduplicated root is generally determined by the assumption or rejection of inserted i in the primitive. When ish is affixed, the radical vowel may in general be optionally changed to Guna. Thus, from mud, either mumodish or mumudish.

d. When 8 is affixed to roots ending in vowels it has the effect of lengthening a final i or U, and changing ri or ļā to ir ; thus, from chi, chichish; from shru, shushrūşh; from kri, chikīrsh; from trī, titārşh.* When to roots ending in consonants, the radical vowel remains unchanged, but the final consonant combines with the initial sibilant, in accordance with the rules laid down in pp. 67. 68. ; as, from yudh, yuyuts (p. 68. 6.); from dah, didhaksh (p. 69. i.).

e. The following roots form their desiderative bases anomalously. From , “ to give,dits (ditsāmi, “I wish to give "); from āp, “to obtain,” īps ; from dhā, dhits ; from ji,“ to conquer, jigīsh; from chi, chikīsh, as well as chichash; from han, to kill," jighāns ; from यह, जिघृक्ष ; from प्रच्छ , पिपृच्छिष् ; from स्वप् , सुपुप्स् ; from 7a, “to be able,” fra; from ,“ to obtain," foo; from भ, रिम् ; पत् , पित्स्.

Non Conjugational Tenses.

The second preterite is formed by affixing ām to the desiderative base, as already formed, and adding the second preterite of either one of the auxiliaries kri or bhū (see p. 77.g.). Thus from pach, the 2d pret. pipakshānchakāra, “I wished to cook.” In all the remaining tenses it is an universal rule that inserted i be assumed after the desiderative base, whether formed by s or ish, except in the bened. par. Thus, 1st fut. of pipuksh, 1st pers. sing. pipakshitāsmi, fc.; 2d fut. pipakshishyāmi, gc.; 3d pret. apipakshisham, &c. (form 1. p. 81.); bened. par. pipakshyāsam, &c.; ātm. pipakshishīya, &c.; condit. apipakshishyam, &c. So, also, taking vividişh (formed with ish from vid), the 1st fut. is vividishitāsmi ; 2d fut. vividişhishyāmi; 3d pret. avividishisham, &c.

* But the root पृ may make पुपूर्व ; भृ, बुभूर्ष ; and वृ, वुवूर्ष .

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