Imatges de pàgina
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IDBSIDERATIWE WERBS.

II9. Although this form of the root rarely appears in its character of a verb, yet nouns and participles derived from the desiderative base are not uncommon (see p. 23. xiii. r. 40., and p. 14l. ४). Some explanation, therefore, of its structure is indiSpensable. Moreover, there are certain roots which take a desiderative form, without exactly yielding a volitive signification ; and these, as being eguivalent to primitive verbs (amongst which they are sometimes classed), may occur in the best writers. For example, .jugaps, “ to blame,' from the root gap ; chikids, “ to cure,' from *it ; tifiksh, “ to bear," from dij; ?māmāms, “ to reason,' from mam ; bibhats, “ to abhor,' from baid/.

The Ter??????dtio?as.

a. Desideratives take the terminations of the regular Scheme at p. 63., and their inflection either in the par. or ātm. is determined by the practice of the primitive verb. Thus, the root ८ud/, taking both inflections in the primitive, may take both in the desiderative (Gubodhishāmi, &c., or babodhishe, &c.); and lab/, taking only the ātm. in the primitives, may take only the ātm. in the desiderative (/ipse, &c.).

FORMATION OF THE BASE.
Co?ijagational Temses.

८. The initial consonant and vowel of the root are reduplicated, and if the root inserts i in the primitive (see p. 79.) then ish is affixed : if the root rejects i, then simply s, changeable to ष् s/, is affixed. Thus, from Kship, “ to throw,' the base chikships (विष्प्सिामि chikshipsāmi, &c.); but from cid, “ to know," taking inserted o in the primitive, cioidis/ (विविदिषामि cāpādis/āmi, &c.). The reduplication of the consonant is strictly in conformity with the rules laid down at p. 75., and that of the vowel of the initial consonant follows the analogy of causal third preterites (p. 88.); that is, the vowel i (generally, however, Short) is reduplicated for o, ā, i, ?, ri, ??, e, or ai ; but the vowel a८ for a, ā, and o.* Thus,

* And if the root begin with a vowel the reduplication still follows the analogy of the same tense ; thus, from osh, ashish, and with ish added, ashishish. See p. 89. S

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The second preterite is formed by affixing ām to the desiderative base, as already formed, and adding the second preterite of either one of the auxiliaries kri or bhā (see p.77.g.). Thus from pacll, the 2d pret. pipakshāichakāra, “ I wished to cook.” Im all the remaining tenscs it is am universal rule that inserted i be assumed after the desiderative base, whether formed by s or ish, except in the boned. par. Thus, Ist fut. of pipaksh, Ist perS. Sing. pipakshitāsmi, &c. ; 2d fut. pipakshighyāmi, &c. ; 8d pret. upipakshisham, &g. (form I. p. 81.) ; bemed, par. pipakshg/āsam, &c. ; ātm. pipakshishāya, &c. ; condit. opipakshishydm, &c. So, also, taking oitridish (formed with ish from oid), the Ist fut. is oioidishitāsmi ; 2d fut. ciuidishishyāmā : :ld pret. abioidishisham, &c.

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120. This form of the root is even less used than the desiderative. In the present participle, however, and in a few nouns, it may sometimes appear (r. 38. xiii. and l24). It gives intensity to the radical idea, especially in the case of roots signifying “ to shine," “ to be beautiful," or “ to lament.' Thus, from dip, “ to shine," comes the intensive form dedipy, “ to shine brightly," and the present participle dedipyamāna (see r. l21); so also from shubh, s/tos/iubhy and shoshubyamānd ; from rud, rorudy and rorudyamāma. There are two kinds of intensive verb, the one a reduplicated ātmanepada verb, conforming, like neuter and passive verbs, to the 4th conjugation, and usually found in a neuter or passive signification ; the other a reduplicated parasmaipada verb, formed analogously to the 3d conjugation. The first of these is the only form ever likely to occur.

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The terminations may be either those of the itm. of the regular scheme at p. 63., or the par. of the irregular Scheme at p. 66. ; the former being adapted to that form of intensive which results from a reduplication of the passive ; the latter to that form which bears analogy to the 3d conjugation.

FORMATION Op THE BASE OF THE ATMANDPADA FORM OF INTENSIWES• Conjugational Temses. The general rule is, that the initial consonant and vowel of the passive base be reduplicated. The consonant being reduplicated according to the usual rules (p. 75.), with the Guna substitute of the radical vowel, whether it be long or Short. Thus, from the passive base dā/ (of da, " to give ') comes the intensive base dediy (dediye, dediyase, &c., see p. 127.); from hāy (passive of hā), jehāy (jehāye, &c.); from stāry, testiry ; from piy, poptiy ; from oidy, oeuidy ; from Dudhy, Uobudky. If the passive base contain a medial a, long a is substituted in the reduplication, aspāpachy frompach ; sismary from smary : if a medial fi, e, or o, the same are reduplicated ; as gāyāchy from /tich, sesherg/ from ser, lolockg/ from lock/ : ifa medial श्, then aro is substituted in the reduplication, as daradrishy from dris//, parग्

spris// from spris///.

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Non-Corgjugational Temses.

In these tenses intensives follow the analogy of passives and reject the affix /. Since, however, the base of the second pret. is formed by affixing tim (as usual in ' all polysyllabic forms, p. 77. g.), and since, in all the other tenses, inserted i is assumed, a coalition of vowels might arise were it not allowed to retain the 3/ in all cases in which a vowel immediately precedes that affix.* Thus, from dedipy is formed the 2d pret. (Ist perS. Sing.) dediptinchakre, & c. rejecting 3/ ; but from dedig/, dediyaichakre, &c. retaining it. Similarly in the other tenses : Ist fut. dedipitahe, &c. ; dediyittihe, &c. : 2d fut. dedipi8/gye, &c., dediyishye, &c. ; 8d pret. ८dedipishā, &c., adedi/ighi, &c. ;! bened. dedipighāya, &c., dedi/ighi/a, ४c. ; cond. adedipighāye, & c., ddedi/is/ं/e, &c.

FORMATION OR' THE BASE OP THE PARASMAIPADA FORM OR INTENSIWES.

Corojugatiomal Temses. 121. The base is here also formed by a reduplication Similar to that of ātmanepada intensives; not, however, from the passive, but from the r00t. Thus from the root puch, pāpach ; from oid, cecid ; from drish, daridrish ; from kri, charikri.ीं Moreover, in accordance with the rules for the 2d and 8d conjugation (pp. 69. 70.) the radical vowel reguires Guna before the e terminations of the scheme (p. 66.). Hence the two bases peped and oeoid (pres. १ebedmi, beoetsi, oecetti ; dual, oeridurah,

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* In passives this c0alition of vowels is avoided by the change of a final vowel to Wriddhi, as of chi to chā/, of hu to hār, and of kri to kār ; and by the change of final to to di/, as of da to dāy, see r. II8.

f In the par. form of intensive, the reduplication may also be daridrish, charikri, or, according to the general rule dardrish, charkri.

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from Forster, but admits of guestion, especially in the case of roots in a or ā.

NOMINALS, OR WERBS DERIWED FRO'M NOUNS.

l22. These are formed by adding certain affixes to the orude of nouns. They are not in very common use, but, theoretically, there is no limit to their formation. They may be classed under three heads : Ist, transitive nominals, yielding the sense of performing, practising, making or using the thing or guality expressed by the noun ; 2d, intransitive nominals, giving a sense of behaving like, becoming like, acting like the person or thing expressed by the noun ; 3d, desiderative nominals, yielding the sense of wishing for the thing expressed by the noun. The latter are rarely found.

7'/le Te???????afi0228. a. All the nominal verbs make use of the regular scheme at p. 63. ; but it should be observed that they are rarely found conjugated in any other tense than the present. Formatiom 0f the Base 0f Tramsitige Wominals.

b. These are formed from nouns in the way that causals are

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