Imatges de pàgina
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# Observe, that in this table the final letter, in its changed state, has been printed, for greater clearness, Separate from the initial ;
except in those cases (in the second and third lines), where the blending of the two vowels made this impossible. But in a semtemce
they must be written without any Separation, as already seen in the opposite page.

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11. Before proceeding to the rules for the combination of consonants, let the alphabet be regarded attentively as divided into two grand classes, as exhibited in the following Table.

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12. If any surd letter end a word when any sonant begins the next, the hard is changed to its own unaspirated soft ; thus, karmakrit Ghapati becomes karmakrid 0/doati ; ba/% asti, cāg asti ; chifralikh ast', chitralig asti.

* It may be proper here to remark, that in writing a Sanscrit sentence, when the words have undergone th0se changes which the laws of combination demand, they may either be written separately, as in the examples.just given, or often more correctly without any separation ; as, karmakridbhaoati। (कमैकृङ्गवति); tyāgasti। (वागस्ति), The student is therefore to observe, that although in the following examples, each word will, for greater clearness, be printed separately from the next, it would accord more with the practice of the natives of India to print them without any separation. There are two cases, howewer, in which there remains no option, but in which words must always be written together without separation, Ist, when a final and initial wowel blend togather into one sound (see examples, r.4-8) ; 2dly, when either crude forms or adverbs arejoined

with other words to form compounds (see Chap. Ix. on Compound words).

13. If any sonant letter end a word when any surd begins the next the soft is changed to its own unaspirated hard.* Thus,

* If the final be an aspirated sonant letter, and belong to a root whose initial

is ga d, or ", the aspirate, which is suppressed in the final, is transferrod back to the initial letter of the root. Thus, tedabudh asti bocomos rodabhad ax#.

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tad karoti becomes tat karoti; b7g pati/, 9ak pati/; ; kshudh pāpāsā, kshat pipāsā. But as very few words in Sanscrit end in any other consonants than t and d, the nasals, Wisargah, the dental Sibilant s, and r, it will be sufficient for all practical purposes that the attention be confined to the changes of these consonants. To begin, therefore, with t and d.


Gemeral racle.

l4. T becomes d before g, gh, d, dh, b, bh, /, /, r, 't', and all vowels.* See example, rule l2.

D becomes d before K, k/), 6, th, p, ph, 8. See example, rule l3.

Before the masals, palatals, and the letter l, final t and d undergo a change in form as well as guality, as in the following Special rules.

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* Before the wowels of terminations t remains unchanged ; thus, the accusative case of Harit is Haritam, not Haridam ; and the third person singular of the verl) yat is yutute, not yadate.

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Changes 0f final m.

22. If the letter म् m end a word when the next begins with ८my consonant, it may be represented by Anuswāra (') ; Or it may, optionally, before those consonants which have a corresponding nasal, be changed to this corresponding nasal. Thus, griham gachchhati is written either गृहं गच्छति or गृहङ्गच्छति.

23. When the mext word begins with a vowel, the letter म् is always written. Thus, griham āpnoti, गृहमाप्नोति.


Almost every nominative case, and nearly half the remaining cases of nouns in Sanscrit, besides many persons of the verb, end in Wisargah (:), or the symbol used to denote the aspirate when final. And this final / is liable to remain unchanged, to be Changed to s, to s/, to o, to r, or to be dropped altogether, according to the nature of the initial letter following. At every step, therefore, these changes will meet the student's eye. Thergfore let him master the follorging fice rales before he attempts to read a single sematence 0f Samscrit, or he cam meoer hope to make any rea! progress in the ac7a८iremem८ 0f ८/ःis ldnga८dge.

* The letter घञ् is, properly, a compound of क् k and म् sh; although, in this Grammar, it is considered as a simple letter, and represented by ksh.

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